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Twelve Csesars 

B.C. 48 to A. D. 96. 

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Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 






Secretary to the American Association op Numismatists; Correspondinq Member of The American Numismatic and Archaeo- 
logical Society, New York; The Boston Numismatic Society, Boston, Mass.; The New London Historical 
Society, New London, Conn., etc., and Editor of "The Numismatic Pilot." 

'Eizidsi^arl \ioi dr/vapcov. 



A series of a ruler's coins is his life digested into annals.— Addison. Ancient coins provide its the means to promote the advancement 
of art among ourselves.— Winslow Lewis. The study of Scripture, as of all ancient annals, is promoted by cotemporary coins. They 
breathe new life through the sacred pages.- -Morris. Every fragment of history, every consonance and similarity of names, acquires new 
meaning under the searching light of coins.— The study of ancient coins, as compared with that of statues, columns and pyramids, is the 
use of the microscope in place of the telescope.— Coins are the most enduring, the most vocal monuments of antiquity.— Molt. I prize numis- 
matics both for the knowledge, and the grand recollections it involves, as well as the pure pleasure it inspires. In this occupation I forget 
the annoyances of human intercourse, the meanness, envy and calumny of rivals. Absorbed in such researches I pass my life in tranquillity, 
far from the tempests of the world and the insatiable ambition of men who esteem themselves great. — Chevalier Riccio. 



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This first attempt to introduce the science of an- 
cient Numismatics into American study is respectfully 
commended to all who prize the accuracy of history, 
and would encourage home enterprise in a new and 
expensive effort. It consists in supplying sets, — one 
each,— of the original coins of The Twelve Caesars, 
(Julius to Domitian, b.c. 48 to a.d. 96,) with scientific 
"readings" of them, and of the accurate engravings 
of 217 more. Thus the privilege may be enjoyed here, 
as it is by students abroad, of looking face to face 
upon those who have long occupied niches in the tem- 
ple of History; of reading, in type and legend, the 
religious aspirations of remote ages; of handling Ro- 
man monuments that were old when civilization in 
other lands was new; and finally, of making good 
advances in the science of Numismatics itself. To be 
able to read these coins under sure instruction, so 
that each letter and character yields its meaning, as 
it did to Greek and Roman eyes eighteen centuries 
since, is an advance in Numismatic study worthy the 
beginning of a new century in American annals. 

The manner in which every coin, and each of the 
217 engraved coins, is "read," in the following pages, 
leaves but little call for an introduction. The Obverses 
and Reverses supplement each other in making clear 
the historical meaning of the monuments, and so, "show- 
ing forth a knowledge which touches as well upon the 
small as the great estates of men." Let it be borne 
in mind that historical Numismatics does not subsist 
merely in explaining the coins; that is the less intel- 
lectual business of the coin-dealer. But to make the 
monument give tongue, — to render it vocal, so to 
speak, in enriching history with those precious details 
that constitute its light and warmth, — this is the work 
of the true Numismatist, and herein lies the secret of 
the enthusiasm germane to the vocation. 

It is here that American teachers— those who at 
much expense and trouble have provided themselves 
with genuine coins, — have halted and lost sight of 
the real aim of Numismatics. To describe the coin is 

but little more than the office of the money-changer. 
A correct set of labels, and care in replacing the bits 
of money in their proper nooks, and the work of such 
a teacher is done. With him, ancient coins are but 
curiosities, his cabinet but a museum of rarities. 

Modern Numismatics, it may be observed, differs toto 
coslo from ancient; the latter alone, in any elevated 
sense of the term, is historical. An American or English 
coin, for instance, has nothing upon it to suggest the 
year in which it was struck, save the figures express- 
ing the date; if they are abraded the date is lost. 
Nor is it of the least importance whether lost or found, 
because it has no connection with any event that oc- 
curred the year of its coinage. To look for national 
history in the issues of our mint, we must inspect 
Medals instead of coins. Coins now-a-days, in ever} r 
country, are but coins, bits of metal stamped by the 
sovereign power for purposes of traffic. But these 
coins, of which sets of twelve each are now offered to 
American readers of history, were not only representa- 
tives of value, mediums of traffic, and marked as such 
by the fingers of the millions whom, so many centu- 
ries since, they faithfully served, but they correspond 
with the modern idea of Medals, inasmuch as each one 
is a leaflet of history, one moiety being upon the 
Obverse, the other upon the Reverse of the monu- 
ment. Vero dulce atqtte jucundum, hastens one of 
the oldest college presidents in our country to say, 
" has been his study of these twelve coins and these 217 
engraved representatives of as many more by the light 
of the exact and laborious readings, furnished in this 

" If we cast an eye over the whole circle of the 
productions of human genius, perhaps we shall per- 
ceive none of such grand importance and utility to 
mankind as history. Most of the other efforts of the 
mind only interest individuals as such; but history, 
when executed with philosophic candor and propriety, 
concerns and instructs whole empires, indeed the whole 
universe. By it, statesmen and states are taught, from 
the example of former and other nations, and that of 
their own in preceding times, to propagate measures 
that contribute to the general welfare, and to guard 


against evils which are often unforeseen, and in con- 
sequence not warded off, only because they are not 
known to have existed in ancient periods, nor the 
methods investigated which then prevented or miti- 
gated them. But the very basis of history is truth; 
without which the causes of human action, nay the 
actions themselves, are disguised, and the instructions, 
arising from the narration, totally lost, or converted 
into an empty chimsera. Now the sole evidence we 
can have of the veracity of a historian consists in such 
collateral documents as are palpable to all, and can 
admit of no falsification. Such, in modern times, are 
public memoirs, instructions to embassadors, letters of 
state, and the like vouchers, which every person allows 
to be irrefragable." 

To these we may add, in the highest and noblest 
sense, historical coins. 

The art of reading Greek and Roman coins is a rare 
gift among American teachers. The quaint forms and 
crowded state of the letters, the excessive abbreviations 
of words necessary to compress so much matter within 
the limit, and the absence of punctuation-points, have 
rendered these monuments sealed pages to the most. 
In choosing 217 engraved models' for the make-up of 
this work, therefore, we have rather sought variety 
of type than elegance of workmanship. This will be 
apparent in inspecting, upon page 32, the coin-cuts 
of Nero. Nothing would be easier than to select from 
his numismata in the three metals, elegant specimens 
of numismatic art. But they would fail to afford suf- 

ficient variety necessary to due advance in coin-read- 
ing. As it is, we are borne out in our opinion by 
all who have gone over these pages, that a careful 
comparison of our twelve coins and the 217 engrav- 
ings, together with the letter-press, will go so far to 
make one expert in the art of reading Greek and 
Roman coins, that future progress will be compara- 
tively swift and easy. 

Loth to lay down the pen, we add, and the reader 
will pardon us for repeating it, — that one of the 
greatest pleasures derived from the handling of ancient 
coins, is that they bring us en face with historical per- 
sons. They present themselves to us as entire mon- 
uments. With an original coin in legible condition, 
the argument is complete. Statues, columns, pyramids, 
suffer from the ravages of barbarian force and the 
inimical touch of time. Paintings are too ephemeral 
for mention in this connection. But the 7netal, the 
dense heavy bronze particularly, which was the peo- 
ple's money, most abundant, most vocal with types, is 
"faithful to its trust"; and the courtly poet at Rome, 
fondly contemplating the immortality of his genius, 
could promise himself nothing better than that his 
verses should be more enduring than the bronze coins 
lying before him that spoke the glory of Caesar and 
the beneficence of Augustus. 

I N DE X. 

It is impracticable to make a thorough index to a work embodying so many details as this, nor will it be looked for. 
The following will be found sufficiently minute for easy, practical reference. 

AE.— Abbreviation of Aes, bronze. 

Aeneas escaping i'rom Troy.— Augustus, 17. 

Aes.— Brass, bronze,' copper. 

Altars.— Caesar, 13; Augustus, 2, 3, 10, 19; Caligula, 23; Otbo, 6; Vitel- 
lius. 9, 13; Titus, 27; Domitian, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Apex.— Head-covering of the priests. See Pontifical Apparatus. 

Apollo, God of Music, etc. See Deities. 

AR.— Abbreviation of Argentum, silver. 

Arch of Titus.— Caligula, 24; Triumphal Arch — Galba, 2. 

Arms, Armor.— Spears — Caesar, 15; Augustus, 5, 22; Tiberius, 5, B, 7, 12; 
Caligula, 16; Nero, 5, 12, 14; Galba, 1. 5, 9, 13; Otbo, 4; Vitellius, 1, 8, 
12, 17; Titus, 1, 2, 3, 7, 16, 17, 22; Domitian, 1. Helmets — Augustus, 
4; Nero, 1, 14; Galba, 1,9; Vitellius, 5, 8, 17; Vespasian, 2. Shields — 
Caesar, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19; Tiberius, 3, 4; Nero, 7, 8, 15; Galba, 1, 5, 9; 
Vitellius, 3, 6, 7, 8, 16, 17; Vespasian, 2, 11, 12; Titus, 4, 5, 26; Domitian, 
3, 9, 17. Bows — Claudius, 24; Galba, 13; Titus, 12. Swords— Caesar, 
8. Corselets — Galba, 9. 

Ass Heads.— Caesar, 18, 19; Domitian, 9. 

AV. — Abbreviation of Avrum, gold. 

Augtjsta. — Same as Empress; sometimes the mother or other relative 
of the Emperor is called Augusta. 

Augustus.— Nearly equivalent to Emperor. 

Aureus. — Standard gold coin of Home. 

Balances.— Money-scales. Augustus, 18; Vitellius, 12. 

Banners, Flags, Ensigns, etc. — See Standards. 

Basket.— Vitellius, 11. 

Baton.— Caesar, 9; Augustus, 4; Nero, 6. 

Beasts and Reptiles. — Crocodiles — Caesar, 3. Lions — Caesar, 8; Ves- 
pasian, 9. Bvlls — Nero, 20. Stags— Caesar, 2, 8; Claudius, 24. Oxen 
drawing plow — Caesar. 4; Augustus, 13; Caligula, 5. Elephants (pro- 
boscis) — Claudiu8,18; Titus, 8. Wolves — Augustus, 9; (with boy), Au- 
gustas, 14. Serpents — Caesar, 7; Augustus, 16; Caligula, 14; Vitellius, 
11 ; Vespasian, 18. Bams' (horns) — Nero, 19 ; Hippopotami — Claudius, 
11. Horses —Vespasian, 18 (see, also, Chariots). Turtles — Galba, 10, 
11,12. Dog— Domitian, 4. 

Bigae.— See Chariots. 

Billon.— Compound of cheap metals with silver. 

Birds.— Eagle— Augustus, 22; Tiberius, 1, 8; Claudius, 19; Vespasian, 5, 
17; Domitian, 10. Harpies — Titus, 19. Doves — Titus, 7. 

Branches.— See Trees. 

Bull.— See Beasts. 

Cadtjcaeus.— Emblem of Mercury, Prosperity, Worship, etc. Augustus 
12; Titus, 11. 

Camps, Military.— Tiberius, 11; Otho, 10, 11. 

Canopus.- -Egyptian god. See Deities. 

Captives. — Caesar, 18; Galba, 2; Vespasian, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; Titus, 1, 
26; Domitian, 17. 

Cavalry.— Augustus, 5; Tiberius, 12; Caligula, 6; Nero, 5; Galba, 2; Otho, 
4; Vespasian, 8; Titus, 2. 

Ceres or Demeter.— Goddess of tbe fields and harvest. See Deities. 

Chairs, Thrones.— Caesar, 7; Tiberius, 5, 6, 7; Caligula, 18; Claudius, 2; 
Nero, 2, 18; Vitellius, 1, 9, 10, 11; Vespasian, 6; Titus, 3, 16, 18; Domi- 
tian, 1, 18. 

Chariots.— Bigae, two-horse — Caesar, 16; Otho, 12. Quadrigae, four- 
horse— Tiberius, 18; Otho, 12; Vespasian, 16; Titus, 23; Domitian, 13. 

Chronology.— Pew references upon Roman coins are found to a.u.c. 
{Anno Urbe Condita), none to a.d. {Anno Domini). The dates upon Ro- 
man imperials are ascertained by the TRP, or COS, or IMP, or by the 
types found on the reverse of the coin. In reading a Greek imperial 
many are dated from the beginning of the emperor's reign. 
Cippus.— A short column. Augustus, 22; Caligula, 8. • ',"'■' 

Cithara.— See Musical Instruments. 
Club.— Augustus, 16; Titus, 22; Domitian, 15. . . V 
Colonial Coins.— Struck in Colonial mints by authority of the Roman 

Columns (Rostrated).— Otho, 8. 
Comitia.— Polls for popular voting. Caesar, 11. 

Cornucopiae (plural Cornva-copiae).— Horn of Plenty; horn of the goat 
Amalthea, placed among the stars as the image of fertility and abun- 
dance. Sometimes written Cornu-Amaltheae. Single Horn. — Caesar, 4; 
Augustus, 18; Caligula, 9; Claudius, 2; Nero, 2, 12, 18; VitelliuB, 10; 
Titus, 18. Double Horn — Caesar, 5, 6; Claudius, 17. 

Crocodileb.— Emblem of Egypt. See Beasts. 

Crowns. — Turreted — Augustus. 18; Caligula, 16; Titus, 15. Laureaied — 
Caesar, 1, 4, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16; Augustus, 22; Tiberius, 5, ,8, 10, 10, 21; 
Caligula, 1, 2, 11, 12, 17, 17; Claudius, 1, 3, 4, 12, 22; Nero, 1, 2. 5, 16, 21; 
Galba, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9; Otho, 3,5; Vitellius, 1, 2, 3; Vespasian, 1, 2. 3, 
9, 10, 14, 16, 17; Titus, 1, 2, 3, 13, 24; Domitian, 1, 2, 15, 17, 18. Radiated 
— Caligula, 13; Nero, 10; Galba, 13; TituB, 7. Vallaris — Caligula, 31; 
Mural — Caligula, 27. Ovalis — Caligula. 28. Obsidional— Caligula, 19. 
Civic — Caligula, 20. Triumphal — Caligula, 29. Naval — Caligula, 30. 

Daric— A Persian coin. Galba, 13. 

Dates or Coins.— See Chronology. 

Deities.— Venus —Caesar, 5, 7, 9, 10, 14, 18, 19. Neptune — Augustus, 11; 
Claudius, 9. Pallas-Minerva — Caligula, 16. Vesta — Tiberius, 6, 7; 
Titus, 6. Apollo— Tiberius, 8; Caligula, 10. Mars — Vitellius, 5. Her- 
cules — Augustus, 16; Titus, 22; Domitian, 15. Canopus — Otho, 5. 
Diana — Caesar, 2; Claudius, 24; Titus, 12; Domitian, 16. Jupiter — 
Nero, 19; Vitellius, 1; Domitian, 1. River and M arine Gods — Claudius, 
2; Nero, 11. Ceres — Claudius, 2; Nero, 2; VitelliuB, 10; Titus, 17. 
Tritons — Claudius, 9; Domitian, 14. 

Denarius. — Standard silver coin of Rome. 

Diadem.— See Crowns. 

Diana. — Goddess of the woods. See Deities. 

Dolphin. — See Fishes. 

Duum-vir.— See Mint Master. 

Eagle. — See Birds and Standards. 

Elephant.— Coin-type of Africa. See Beasts. 

Exergue. — The small blank space at the bottom of the reverses of coins. 

Fascis.— Emblem before Roman magistrate. Caligula, 26. 

Felix. — Translated fortunate, happy, successful; also fruitful. 

Field. — The whole surface of a coin, on either side. 

Fishes. — Dolphins. Augustus, 11 ; Claudius, 2. 

Flute.— See Musical Instruments. 

Fulmina.— See Thunderbolts. 

Gallies.— Tiberius, 15; Claudius, 2; Nero, 9; Vitellius, 16. 

Genius.— The tutelar deity allowed to every being at his birth; cities 
and provinces also had tutelars called geniuses. 

Gloee.— Emblem of universal dominion. Caesar, 15; Augustus, 8, 21 ; Clau- 
dius, 3. 

Gloriola.— A small winged image; type of Roman victories, usually held 
in the hand of a person. Caesar, 14, 15; Augustus, 22; Vitellius, 5; 
Titus, 16; Domitian, 1. Also styled Victoriola 

Goal. — Boundary post in race-course. Titus, 14. 

Gradient. — Stepping in a stately manner. 

Greek Imperials. — Coins struck under the Emperors, having Greek in- 

Hands, Joined.— Coin-type of Concord —Augustus, 2; Claudius, 20; 
Vitellius, 4. 

Harp.— See Musical Instruments. 

Harpies.— See Deities. 

Hasta Pura. — See Arms. The term implies a headless spear. 

Head-Dresses op Females.— Caesar, 5, 7, 9, 10, 18. 19; Augustus, 22, 23, 
24; Tiberius, 9, 16, 21; Caligula, 3; Claudius, 15, 18, 21, 24; Nero. 6, 10. 
21, 22, 23; Galba, 4, 8; Otho, 9; Vespasian, 18; Titus, 8, 20, 27; Domi- 
tian, 15, 16. 

Helm.— See Rudder. The emblem usually accompanies fortune. 

Helmets. — See Arms. 

Hercules.— Deity of Sinew ana Bodily Strength. Many of his twelve 

labors form coin-types. See Deities. 
Hippopotamus.— See Beasts. 
Horses.— See Beasts. 

Inscription.— The epigraph on the obverse of a coin. 
Iulus.— See Aeneas. 



Janus.— See Temples. The last time his was officially opened was a.d. 

242, under Gordian Pius. 
Jugated.— Two or more heads joined. Caesar, 2. 
Jupiter.— Supreme deity of pagan world; known as Jupiter Amnion, 

Capitoline, Victor, etc. etc. See Deities. 
Labyrinth.— Augustus, 12. 

Laurel.— Branches — Tiberius, 8. For laurel-wreaths see Wreaths. 
Legend.— The epigraph upon the reverse of a coin. 
Lions. — See Beasts. 
Lituus.— Curved staff by which the Augur divided the starry sphere. See 

Pontifical Apparatus. 
Lotus.— Coin-emblem of Egypt, Mauritania and Sicily. Galba, 4, 8; Otho, 

5; Titus, 20; Domitiau, 14. 
Lyre.— See Musical Instruments. 
Maniple.— See Standards. 
Masks.— Comic — Nero, 2; Domitian, 17. 
Medallions. — Numismata of large size, not for currency. 
Medusa's Head on Minerva's Shield.— Caligula, 16. 
Minerva.— See Pallas. 
Mint-Masters.— Moneyers, Duum-viri. 
Modius.— A form of grain measure, frequent on Egyptian coins. Nero, 2; 

Titus, 21, 22. 
Money-Scales— See Balances. 
Moon.— Augustus, 23; Claudius, 24; Nero, 6. 
Mountains.— Otho, 1. 
Musical Instruments.— Harp — Tiberius, 8; Caligula, 10; Nero, 13, 17; 

Domitian, 4, 5, 6, 7. Flute (double)— Domitian, 4, 0, 7, 8. Trumpet — 

Vespasian, 16. 
Neptune.— God of the marine world. See Deities. 
Obverse.— The front or principal side of the coin. 
Olive.— See Trees. 

Owl.— Coin-type of Athens, etc. See Birds. 
Oxen drawing plow.— Type of colony-coins. See Beasts. 
Oak. — See Trees. 
Palladium.— Augustus, 17. 

Pallas.— Minerva, Goddess of War. See Deities. 
Paludamentum.— A general's cloak. 
Parazonium.— See Baton. 
Palm.— See Trees. 
Patera.— Sacred dish or platter need for making libations in sacrifices; a 

broad, shallow bowl. See Pontifical Apparatus. 
Patinated. — The rust-color give to bronze coins by age. 
Pegasus— Coin-type of Corinth, etc.; Winged Horse. Caesar, 7, 8; Ca- 
ligula, 15; Nero, 7. 
Pius.— Translated dutifully-affectionate, or simply dutiful. 
Platform.— Claudius, 8; Nero, 1; Galba, 1; Veepisian, 2; Domitian, 11. 
Plow drawn by Oxen.— Caesar, 4; Augustus, 13; Caligula, 5; Domitian, 12. 
Pontifex Maximus.— Written on coins PM, the High Priesthood held by 

the emperors. 
Pontifical Apparatus. — Lituus — Caesar, 3, 12, 13, 15. Simpuhim — 

Caesar, 15, 17; Tiberius, 19. Patera — Tiberius, 6, 7; Nero, 13; Vitel- 

lius, 9; Titus, 18. Vase — Caesar, 10; Nero, 14. Sece^pita — Caligula, 

21, 25, 32. Apex — Caesar, 12. Vtils — Caesar, 14, 17; Augustus, 2; 

Tiberius, 6, 7. 
Poppy-heads.— Coin-type of Plenty. Claudius, 24. 
Potin.— A compound of copper and zinc found in coins. 
Pots. — Nero, 11. 

Prows op Galleys.— Augustus, 11; Titus, 25. 
Quadrigae. — See Chariots. 
Rams.— See Beasts. 
Reptiles. — See Beasts. 
Reeds.— See Trees. 

Reverse. — The rear or inferior side of the coin. 

Roman Imperials. — 

Rostra. — BeakB of galleys. Otho, 8; Domitian, 3. 

Rudder of Ship.— See, also, Galley. Augustus, 21; Caligula, 1, 8. 

S.C. or Ex. S.C.— Senatus Consulto. " By Decree of the Senate." Under 

the imperial rule it is rarely found on coins of gold or silver. 
Scales. — Money-scales. See Balances. 
Scepter. — Scipio, Parazonium. See Baton. 
Scipio. — See Baton. 

Secespita. — Knife for cutting victim. See Pontifical Apparatus. 
Sepulcher. — Otho, 7. 

Serpent. — Emblem of Aesculapius, Health. See Reptiles. 
Shields.— See Arms. 
Ships. — See Galley. 
Signet-ring.— Caligula, 20, 33, 34. 
Simpulum.— The sacred ladle used in sacrifices for pouring out wine. See 

Pontifical Apparatus. 
Spears. — See Arms. 
Stags.— Type of Diana. See Beasts. 

Standards.— Eagle of the Legion— Tiberius, 18; Caligula, 2; Claudius, 5, 6; 
Nero, 1; Galba, 1; Domitian, 10. Maniples, or Company Banners — 
Augustus, 8; Caligula, 2; Claudius, 6; Nero, 1; Galba, 1; Vespasian, 2; 
Domitian, 10. Vexillum of Cavalry and Galleys — Augustus, 4, 10; Ti- 
berius, 15; Nero, 9; Galba, 1; Domitian, 9. 
Stars.— Caesar, 13, 14; Tiberius, 21. 
Suggestum,— See Platform. 
Sun. — Nero, 6. 

Temples.— Of Venus — Caesar, 13; Vespasian, 4. Of Jupiter — Augustus, 
6, Vitellius, 1. Of Concord — Tiberius, 1 . Of Janus — Nero, 3, 4. Of 
I 3 ! evidence— Vitellius, 13. 
Thrones.— See Chairs. 

Thunderbolts.— Coin-type of Jupiter. Augustus, 20; Claudius, 19; Do- 
mitian, 10. 
Torches.— Coin-type of Ceres. Claudius, 2; Nero, 2; Vitellius, 10, 11. 
Trees, Plants, Branches.— Palm — Claudius, 10; Vitellius, 3; Vespasian, 
1, 3, 11, 12, 13, 15; Titus, 1,4, 9, 10, 26. Olive — Tiberius, 5, 8; Nero, 18; 
Titus, 3. Reeds — Nero, 11. 
Trident. — Augustus, 11; Claudius, 9; Titus, 7. 
Tripod. — See Altars. 
Trophies.— Objects raised on battle-fields as tokens of victory. Caesar, 

17, 18, 19; Vitellius, 7; Vespasian, 14; Titus, 5; Domitian, 17. 
Turtles.— See Reptiles. 
Urn.— See Vase. 

Vase.— Vessel for containing the sacred liquid of the sacrifices. See Pon- 
tifical Apparatus. Nero, 11; Vespasian, 9. 
Veil.— See Pontifical Apparatus. 
Venus.— Goddess of the tender passions. See Deities. 
Vessel. — See Galley. 

Vesta, Ops, Cybele.— The Goddess Terra. See Deities. 
Vexillum.— See Standards. 

Victimarius.— The sacred butcher. See Pontifical Apparatus. 
Victories.— Winged figures. Augustus, 3, 8; Claudius, 3, 10; Nero, 16, 

17; Otho, 2; Vitellius, 3. 6, 7; Titus, 4, 9, 10, 25. 
Wand.— Caesar, 7, 11, 14; Augustus, 16; Nero, 2. 
Whbat-Heads.— Coin-type of fertility. Claudius, 14, 23, 24; Vitellius, 

10; Titus, 17. 
Wolves.— See Beasts. 

Wreaths.— Coin-type of Roman honor. Oak Leaves (the Civic wreath) 
—Augustus, 7; Caligula, 17; Claudius, 1, 12; Galba, 3. Laurel (the 
Glory wreath) — Caesar, 17; Augustus. 3, 8; Tiberius, 1; Titus, 9, 10, 25. 
Olive (the Peace wreath) —Augustus, 1 ; Caligula, 9; Otho, 3; Vespasian, 
5; Titus, 6. 


Comprising Expressions most frequently used in Descriptions of Coins. 

Acerka.— A sacrificial instrument; a little coffer of incense. 

Adspebsorium. — A sacrificial instrument; a vessel for holy water, with 
which the priest sprinkled the assistants. 

Apex.— A cap with strings, and terminating with a tuft; badge of the 

Apis.— Appears as a bull with a flower of the celtis, or lotus, of botanists, 
between his horns. 

Astabte.— A Sidonian goddess; appears on a globe supported by a char- 
iot of two wheels, and drawn by two horses. 

Bronze — First, Second, Third.— Ancient copper or bronze coins are di- 
vided, for convenience, into three classes, viz. : First, Second and Third 
Bronzes. A "First Bronze" (the sestertius) is about the size of an 
English penny, and weighs from 478 to 383 grains., (This class ceases 
with Gallienus, a.d. 260.) A "Second Bronze" (the dupondius) is 
about half the size of the " First," and weighs 208 grains. A " Third 
Bronze" (the reduced as) is from the size of the American dime to a 
size one half larger. (See Size.) Pure copper was not used by the an- 
cients so much as Bronze, or copper mixed with zinc. This made a 
hard and durable metal, sufficiently hard, indeed, that working tools 
(chisels, saws, axes, etc.) and weapons of war were forged from it. 
Many references to this are found in the Iliad. 

Caduceus. A white wand or rod, generally having wings; symbol of 
peace and concord. 

(Xesar. Originally denoted only the adopted son of Julius Cajsar; after- 
ward the Emperors named their successors Cmsars; and, from the 
time of Nero, the Emperors themselves often bore that title, as a dis- 
tinguishing mark of succession to the imperial purple. 

Carpentum. The divine chariot which carried the image of a deity in 
sacred processions; a badge of consecration of an Empress. 

Cloaked. Wearing the paludamentum, or General's military cloak. It 
was of a scarlet color. 

Coin. From Lat. cuneus, wedge. A piece of metal on which certain char- 
acters are stamped, making it legally current as money. The first coins 
were struck about B.C. 850. Herodotus tells us that the Lydians first 
coined gold. 

Consecration Coins. These are coins struck in honor of a person after 
death; a sort of medallic grave-stone. They form a numerous class in 
the Roman series, a large proportion of the Emperors, etc., being thus 

Deities.— Those most frequently found on coins are as follows, viz. : JEs- 
culapius, known by his bushy beard and his leaning on a club with a 
serpent twined around it. Apollo, known by the harp, the laurel- 
branch, the tripod, and sometimes by the bow and arrows; in the char- 
acter of the Sun (in which he generally appears on Roman coins) his 
head is surrounded with rays. Diana, known by the crescent, bow and 
arrows and by her hounds; the Ephesian Diana, common on Greek 
imperial coins, appears with a number of mammae. Hercules, known 
by the club, the lion's skin and sinewy strength; sometimes a cup is 
added to imply that wine inspires courage; also the poplar-tree, sym- 
bolic of vigor. Juno, known by the peacock. Jupiter, known by his 
eagle and thunderbolt; Jupiter Ammon is distinguished by the ram's 
horn twisting around his ear, a symbol of power and strength. Mars, 
known by his armor and sometimes by a trophy on his shoulders. 
Mercury, known by the caduceus and the purse which he holds in his 
hand; he wears a small cap on his head and wings behind his ears and 
at his feet. Minerva, known by her being in armor, holding a spear in 
her right hand and a shield, with Medusa's head, in her left; an owl 
commonly stands beside her. Neptune, known by the trident or the 
dolphin; sometimes drawn by sea-horses. Venus, known by the apple 
which she holds in her hand — the prize of beauty; sometimes by her 
total want of dress. 
Denarius. This word, rendered in the Scriptures "penny," was the 
name given to the principal Roman silver coin from its being at first 
equivalent to ten asses, but on the reduction of the weight of the as it 
was made equal to sixteen asses, and though the soldier nominally re- 
ceived a denarius per diem, he was only paid ten asses. 
Diadem. The diadem or vitta was a ribbon worn arotfhd the head, and 
tied in a floating knot behind, anciently the simple but superlative 
badge of a king. In the family of Constantino it is ornamented on 
either edge with a row of pearls. 

Dioscuri; or Sons of Jupiter. A name given to the hero twins Castor 
and Pollux. Was one of the earliest and most favorite types of the 
Roman coinage. The birth of the twins in an egg is the reason of rep- 
resenting them in the peculiar cap which they always wear, evidently 
the half of an egg-shell. They are nearly always represented with two 
stars over their heads (according to the fable, they were transformed 
into stars, in which character they occupy a place among the Signs of 
the Zodiac*. Occasionally their heads only are represented, as two 
profiles joined at the back, with a star over each. 
Eagle. Very frequent on the coins of Alexander the Great and the Ptole- 
mies; commonly seen on the reverse together with Jupiter. 
Incused. The original mode of coining money was by striking a piece of 
metal into a mould or die, by means of a wedge or punch, until the 
piece of metal was sufficiently driven into the mould to receive a per- 
fect impression. The money thus produced had, of course, one perfect 
side — that driven into the die — the other being marked with the deep, 
and, at first, irregular indent of the punch. This process was gradually 
improved by making the punch more regular in form, the mode of 
doing which varied In different places. When the designs on the punch 
were in relief, they were formed in concave, or incused, on the coin. 
The punch was made in this form with the intention, no doubt, of 
increasing the power of that instrument to drive the piece of metal 
about to be coined well into the mould. In common parlance we say 
a coin is " struck " (incused) when formed in the mint. Formerly all 
money was incused by hammers and weights as jewelers now-a-days 
make metallic ornaments and medals; but in the modern mints, money 
is pressed by machinery. 
Laubeated. Wearing a laurel crown. 

Milling. Ancient money was not milled, as this requires machinery not 
known to the ancients. The edges of old coins are always irregular, 
often cracked aud rude. 
Mint. From Lat. moneta, the mint, coined money, from Moneta, a sur- 
name of Juno, in whose temple at Rome money was coined. 
Mint-Marks. Every Roman Mint (and they were numerous) impressed a 
mint-mark peculiar to itself upon each coin struck. The quantity of 
bronze money of the Roman Empire, that is continually coming to 
light, is amazing. This money is rarely counterfeited, for it is too 
plenty and cheap to pay the forger, and the collector may feel a con- 
fidence in the genuineness of this which he cannot feel in gold and 
silver coin. To account for this abundance, we need only consider four 
points : 1. A large number of Mints were worked for a thousand years, 
striking this cheap " money of the people," the Mint at Rome alone 
employing over 1,000 workmen, besides slaves. 2. Whenever the 
Roman authorities took possession of a new country, they deposited 
large quantities of the cheap coinage in the earth, thus establishing 
"squatter sovereignty" at the butts and bounds of the territory; it 
was also a Roman custom to bury money with their dead. 3. For want 
of banks, the earth was made the treasury of the people, as even now 
it is in the Turkish Empire. Robbers concealed their spoil in the earth, 
A Roman legion, going into battle, usually deposited the money of the 
soldiers in the earth. 4. Immense quantities of cheap money are lost 
in daily use, and so return to the earth from whence they came. It is 
safe to estimate that the number of coins lying under ground in the 
extended territory of old Rome counts by millions of millions. With 
it are found much gold and silver. 
Moneyer. A mint-master, or Triumvir Monetalis. The office of mint- 
master was held by three individuals at one time; hence the title of 
Triumvir Monetalis. It is a singular fact that after the reign of Augus- 
tus all mention on coins of the name and title of the masters of the 
mint entirely disappears, although the office of IIIVIR MONETALIS 
was still continued. 
Numismatics. The science of coins. The term " coin-study " has been 

recommended as a better expression. 
Palm-Tree. A frequent coin-emblem, symbolic of Phoenicia and Syria, 

where that tree flourished. The palm-branch is symbolic of victory. 
Paludamentum. The military cloak of the Roman General was called 
paludamehtum. The Roman Emperors, or Generals (for they were all 
military commanders), are very frequently seen on their coins, wearing 
this cloak. 
Paludated. Wearing the Paludamentum. 



Patinated.— Acoin inpatinated when colored by age; this patina is often 
extremely rich in color according to the constituent parts of the metal. 
Don't try to clean a bronze coin. Get off the rust sufficiently to enable 
you to read it, both obverse and reverse, but no more. Gentle friction, 
assisted by mild soapsuds, will remove all the rust from bronze coins 
that need be removed. The rust itself is part of its history; it is as 
the wrinkles and gray hair of the aged; when thoroughly patinated it 
is most beautiful. A coin that has been dipped in acid partakes of the 
" cheap and nasty." Gold alone refuses rust, coins of gold being found 
generally in the same state of brightness as when they left the hammer. 

PEAcock.— The bird of Juno, the queen of heaven. One of the badges of 
consecration of an Empress. 

Secespita.— An instrument of sacrifice; an oblong hatchet or large knife 
for killing the victim. 

Sisteum.— An emblem of Egypt; it being an instrument like an elongated 
horseshoe, made of brass, fixed on a handle, with loose bars across 
from side to side, which made a jingling noise when it was shaken, 
and some specimens seem to be made with the horseshoe-like part hol- 
low to increase the sound. It was carried by the priests of Isis, and 
UBed by them in their religious ceremonies. 

Size.— The size of coins is given in sixteenths of an inch, the "American 

Types or Divinity.— These are the Radiated Crown; an Eagle grasping 
either the Lightning or the Globe; Temples, Altars and Sacrifices; the 
open Car drawn by Elephants; the attribute of DIVVS, whether with 
or without the Radiated Crown; and Stars. These Types of Divinity, 
found upon coins, are all enumerated by the poet Lucan: 

"Bella pares superis facient civilia D1VOS: 
FVLMINIBVS maneis RADIIS que ornabit et ASTRIS, 
Inque Deitm TEMPLIS jurabit Roma per umbras." 

" Ev'n Gods of men these civil wars shall make 
Equal lo thoee above, with Lightnings deck, 
With Radiant Crowns and Stabs, the dead; and Rome 
Shall in their Temples swear in times to come." 

Victoriola. — A small image personifying victory; usually holding a 

wreath or branch. 
Victory. — A life-6ize female figure; the personification of victory. 
Weight.— The weight of coins is given in grains (Troy weight), 24 to the 

pennyweight. All money is estimated by this standard. 


The authorities in Numismatic Science are so numerous as to embarrass the writer in forming a popular catalogue. The fol- 
lowing titles are taken from Dr. Morris' library at La Grange, Kentucky, U. S. A., in which the great works of Cohen and Eckhel 
have not yet found the places reserved for them. The numbers in parentheses are those used by Dr. Morris. 

Selectiora Numismata, in aere maximi moduli e Musio Illustrissimi D. D. 
Francisci de Camps, etc. etc., per D. Vaillant. Parisiis, 1695; square, 
pp. 144. (No. 140.) 
The Loin Collector's Manual, or Guide to the Numismatic Student in 
the formation of a Cabinet of Coins, etc. H. Noel Humphreys. Lon- 
don, 1853; 2 vols. 12mo, pp. xxiv, 352, 726, with plates inserted. (Nos. 

Recueil de Medailles de Rois, etc. Anonymous. Paris, 1772; 4to. (No. 

History of Jewish Coinage, and of Money in the Old and New Testament. 
Frederick W. Madden. London, 1864; large 4to, pp. xi, xii, 350. (No. 

Voyage de Dalmatie de Greece et du Levant. George Wheeler. 2 vols. A 
la Haye, 1723. (These volumes are enriched by coin cuts.) 16mo, pp. 
xii, 332, 358. (Nos. 420-1.) 

Numismata Imperatorum Romanorum Praestantiora, a Julio Caesare ad 
Tyrannos usque. Per John Vaillant. Rome, 1743. Vol. II of Gold 
and Silver Coins. Square, pp. 452. Vol. Ill completes the appendix 
of gold and silver coins from Cornelia Supera to Constan tine the Great; 
also, a series of coins maximi modula, from Julius Caesar to John Pal- 
aeolagus. (Nos. 422-3.) 

A Numismatic Manual, or Guide to the Study of Greek, Roman and Eng- 
lish Coins. John Y. Ackerman. London, 1832; 16mo, pp. xii, 182. 
(No. 424.) 

Essay on Medals. (Anonymous.) London, 1784; 12mo, pp. xxv, 324. (No. 

Lexicon Zfniversae Rei Numariae Veterum et Prcecipue Graecorum et Ro- 
manorum, etc. Jo. Christopher Raschc. It is impossible to overrate 
the value of this stupendous work. 13 vols. 8vo. Leipsic, 1785. (Nos. 

An Essay on, the Roman Denarius and English Silver Penny, etc. etc. Wil- 
liam Till. London, 1838; 16mo, pp. 226. (No. 14.) 

De V Organization Militaire de I' Empire Romain el des Medailles Legionaires. 
M. J. Roman. 8vo, pp. 63. Paris, 1867. (No. 15.) 

Description Genirale des Monnaies Byzantines, etc., from Arcadius to Ma- 
homet II. 2 vols. 8vo, pp. 325 and 377, with numerous illustrations. J. 
Sabatier. Paris, 1862. (Nos. 16-17.) 

Ezechielis Spanheimii de Praestantia et usu Numismatum 
Antiguorum. 2 vols. pp. 916, with large Indices, etc. Amsterdam, 
1671. (Nos. 22, 23.) 

Production de V Or de V Argent et du Cuivre chez les Anciens, et Hotels Mone- 

taires. 8vo, pp. 177. J. and L. Sabatier. St. Petersburg, 1850 (No. 29.) 
De Nummo Argenteo Benedicti III, Pont. Max. Dissertatio, etc. 4to, pp. 

178. Joseph Garampius, Rome, 1749. (No. 31.) 
Etude Historique sur les Monnaies f rappees par Us Grands Maitres de VOr- 

dre de Saint Jean de Jerusalem. 8vo, pp. 65, with six plates. M . Lan- 

gier. Marseilles, 1868. (No. 32.) 
A Numismatic Dictionary, etc. Peter Whelan. 24mo, pp. 27. London. 

(No. 33.) 
Le Antiche Iscrizioni di Palermo, etc. (Italian.) 4to, pp. 460. One page 

coins, with many single coin cuts. Palermo, 1762. (No. 608.) 
Jacobi Philippi d' Orville, Sicula, etc. etc. Folio, pp. 676. This immense 

work has 20 plates of coins, besides numerous single coin cuts, etc. 

Amsterdam, 1764. (No. 609.) 
Numismata. A Discourse of Medals, Ancient and Modern, etc. J. Evelyn. 

4to, pp. 342, and index. London, 1697. (No. 37.) 
A Dinah of Bedr, Son of Husnawiyeh. (No. 38.) 
Early Dirhemof the Ommeyade Dynasty. (No. 39.) 
Glass as a Material for Standard Coin Weights. (No. 40.) 
A Dinah of Salih Ebn Mir das of Aleppo. (No. 41.) 
Notes on some of the Dynasty of the Khalifahs of Bani- Umeya. No. 42.) 
Notice on tlie Dinars of the Abisside Dynasty. (No. 43.) 
Familiae Romanae in antiquis numismatibus, ab Urbe Condita ad Tempora 

Divi Augusti, etc. etc Carolus Patin. Parisiensis, 1673; folio, pp. 

38, 430. (No. 287.) 
Imperatorum Romanorum, Numismata ex aere mediae et minimae formae, 

descripta et enarrata per Carolum Patinum. Amsterdam, 1696; folio, 

pp. xxii, 434. (No. 288.) 
Records of Roman History, from Cnaeus Pompeius to Tiberius Constanti- 

nus, as exhibited on the Roman Coins collected by Francis Hobler. 

Westminster, 1860; 2 vols. 4to, pp. xi, 398 to 862. (No. 289-90.) 
Numismatic Atlas of Ancient History. B. R. Green. London, 1829. 

(No. 58.) 
Selecta Numismata Antiqua. Peter Seguin. Paris, 1684. Square, p. 329. 

(No. 62.) 
Familiae Romanae. Fulvius Ursinus. Rome, 1577; folio, p. 272. (No. 63.) 
Iconographie, etc. Sabatier. St. Petersburgh, 1847; folio. A work of 

enormous magnitude and great practical value. (No. 64.) 
Medallic History of Imperial Rome. William Cooke. London, 1781; 2 vols. 

(Nos. 73, 74.) 

with the volume .inump:iiiviiis; the coins. 

Descriptive Leaflet No.161 

A Coin oi <-T.ik(Lajj.i..LImLduLi.JAi:iifA^..Jk'.uj 

Registered by the American Association of Numismatists. 

I. Name and address of owner. II. Diameter, by the American scale of sixteenths of an inch. III. Weight, in 
Troy grains. IV. Material and present condition. V. Description of the obverse. VI. Description of the reverse. 
VII. Contents of the Field. VIII. Contents of the Exergue. IX. Miscellaneous remarks. 

I.. II. .../& III.....*?. .....; 

IV.„„/^i;rf...^j;{y/if_^ , .t J ^.V>/vaM^.llj l ..../;f//^.£ea(jKi(j& - 

V. OBVERSE. Face to the ^/./...Xaf/.i^cs..//^^ - - 

1 nscription — Literally. „JM±'...^JUm-.C-J&AR.„A±:i±..JE„MAJ$;...XJLJ~-J?-It. 

Resolved.. .YM/mt/j2^A/.'/.'<^..Cr£i;/7r...;l//^ 


VI. REVERSE..... J.... /;^>v^rc..!^..-.LYfA^ ^Ae..JioMjLSu.Jia..xig.kt.A<aid..sL.Kitui!ii. 

Legend — Literally. Zlfa:n:..i?...!i('---f<fU!£ud.< 



VII. THE FIELD. .>«te.!.X 

VIII. THE EXERGUE. £/«//r, _ 


l Ik victories in Belgium iiJ!d__Arme?ii<r ± _iu_/ignor_^ 

eiirhtv-four vcurs. 



[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome — 
from B.C. 47 to a.d. 96 — Caius Julius Caesar, b.c. 47-44, was the first. 
The eleven who succeeded him under this title, were Augustus, b.c. 31- ! 
a.d. 14; Tiberius, 14-37; Caligula, 37-41; Claudius, 41-54; Nero, 54-68; | 
Galba, 68-69; Otho, 69; Vitellius, 69; Vespasian, 69-79; Titus, 79-81, 
and Domitian, 81-96.] 

Caius Julius Caesar, the first of this name, and ruler with imperial 
power from b.c. 47 to 44, was born at Rome on the 12th July. B.c. 100; a. 
t. c. 654. The ruling Consuls were C. Marius and L. Valerius Flaccus. 
The "Social War" between Sylla and Marius, then brewing, broke out 
nine years later. The father of our subject had the same name as his own; 
he had enjoyed the dignity of praetor, but died when his namesake was 
16 years of age. Nineteen years later Julius, being then curule aedile, 
exhibited games in honor of his father. His mother, Aurelia, died a.d. 
54, while her son was in Gaul. She had two daughters. Aurelia gave much 
attention to the education and interests of Julius, and appears to have 
lived in his house until her death. 

To compress even a succinct sketch of a life so celebrated within a 
single page, is a task of no ordinary difficulty. Clarum et duraluram cum 
aeternitate mundi nomen is the expression of the old historian, " a bright 
name and one that will endure with the eternity of the world! " 

Through his relationship to Marius, husband of his aunt Julia, Julius 
was m&deflamen dialis at 13 years of age. Sulla, the rival of Marius. formed 
designs upon Caesar's life, and only spared him at the intercession of the 
Vestal Virgins, predicting, however, " that the boy would some day prove 
the ruin of those who opposed him." He served his first campaigns, B.C. 
81, at Mytilene, Asia, and received the civic crown. Upon receiving 
news of Sulla's death he returned to Rome. He studied oratory at 
Rhodes, B.C. 76, under Appoilonius Molo, former teacher of Cicero. He 
was elected Pontiff B.C. 74. In 73, the year of Julia's death, he was made 
quaestor, which was the first step to military promotion, and went to 
Spain in that capacity. Returning to Rome b.c. 67, he joined the party of 
Pompey. In the Catilinian Conspiracy of 66 he temporized, and histori- 
ans do not agree as to the part he took. He entered upon the office of 
curule aedile b.c. 65. Two years later he was elected pontifex maximus 
and praetor. In the Catilinian trials of that year he opposed the execu- 
tion of the miscreant and advocated life-long imprisonment. 

In the year 61 he obtained the province of Further Spain, and though 
for the first time at the head of the army, at once displayed that genius for 
war which has placed him among the greatest captains of history. Upon 
his first victory the troops saluted him Imperator and the Senate de- 
creed him a public thanksgiving. Returning to Rome the next year, he 
was elected Consul for the first time, and entered upon it b.c. 59. Then 
he formed, with Pompey and M. Crassus, the first triumvirate, which, 
though but a private agreement for personal benefits, became a model 
for future and most dangerous combinations under the name. He set 
out upon his Gallic campaigns bo. 58, and for nine years was almost in- 
cessantly employed in march, fortification or battle. His genius triumphed 
over every obstacle. More than a million of the Gauls and Germans per- 
ished in the strife, and as many more were made prisoners. 

War was declared between Pompey and Caesar early b.c. 49. when 
Caesar crossed the Rubicon and advanced upon Rome. Pompey fled to 
Greece. In April Caesar began a campaign in Spain, where Pompey had 
6even legions, gained every battle and in forty days returned to Rome, 
having in his absence been appointed Dictator. This supreme office, bow- 
ever, he voluntarily laid down after the brief term of eleven days. 

In January 48 he crossed with his army into Greece and upon the plains 
of Pharsalia, on the 9th August, gave Pompey a total defeat. He fled to 
Egypt, pursued by Caesar, but was murdered before his enemy arrived. 
This battle decided the fate of Rome. The conquering general was made 
Dictator the second time and Consul for the term of five years. 

Before returning, Caesar operated against his opponents for more than 
twelve months, in Egypt and Pontus. He then set out to carry the war 
into Africa, against Scipio and Cato, who had large forces there. The 
battle of Thapsus, April 6, B.C. 46, was another Pharsalia, and Caesar was 
now undisputed master of the Roman world. Returning to Rome, the 
Senate decreed a public thanksgiving of forty days, appointed him Dic- 
tator for ten years, and Censor, under the title of praefectus morum, for 
three years. He enjoyed four magnificent triumphs, in which the games 
of the circus and amphitheater were celebrated with unparalleled 

splendor. Behind his conquering chariot the boy Augustus, afterward 
Emperor, was permitted to ride. 

Caesar now began those acts which so distinguish him as a civil ruler. 
In his character of pontifex maximus he reformed the calendar, being per- 
sonally familiar with astronomy as then understood. This he did by add- 
ing 90 days to the year and so adapting the civic to the solar calendar. 

The Roman Senate from this period crouched at Caesar's feet. They 
authorized him to wear upon all occasions a triumphal robe; gave him the 
title of Pater Patriae, or as some read it, Parens Patriae, " father of the 
country; " placed his statues in all the temples; named the mouth Quintilis 
'July " in his honor, and apotheosized or raised him while yet living to 
the rank of the god. He was made Consul for ten years; his person was 
declared sacrvsancti (sacred, inviolable); a guard of senators and knights 
was appointed to protect his person, and the whole Senate took an oath 
'■ to watch over his safety." He was made dictator and praefectus morum 
for life; finally his portrait was ordered to be placed upon the national 
coinage, the first time such an honor was accorded to any one. 

All had now been yielded to this successful soldier and statesman save 
the right to nominate his successor. He had used his power mainly for the 
good of his country. His mercy was equal to his justice. He began to 
frame digests of the laws, to drain marshes, enlarge harbors, establish 
public libraries, excavate canals. But he felt that this strong fabric of 
government would fall to pieces at his death and chaos come again. On 
the 15th February, B.C. 44, therefore, a proposal was made to the people by 
Mark Antony to offer him the diadem, that so the succession might be se- 
cured. Seeing that it was not popular, Caesar declined it for the time, 
intending, doubtless, to have it renewed on a fitting season. 

But the life of this great scholar, orator, statesman, soldier, was draw- 
ing to a close. A conspiracy, comprising more than sixty prominent per- 
sons, had been formed, and on the 15th March, b.c 44, Caesar was assas- 
sinated in the Senate-house. 

Caesar was four limes married, viz : First, to Cossutia, whom he di- 
vorced b.c. 83. Second, to Cornelia, daughter of L. Cinna, who died b.c. 
68. Third, to Pompeia, in 67. This lady proving unfaithful, he divorced 
her b.c. 60. Fourth, to Calpurnia, about b.c. 59, who survived him. But 
from none of them had he any children. 

The name and apparatus of Augur occur frequently in Caesar's 
coins, more sparsely in those of his successors. Any soothsayer or 
diviner was styled an Augur, as Apollo, for instance, the god of soothsay- 
ing. But the numismatic use of the term is limited to the chief of the Au- 
gural College, a body of priests supported by the public (Augures publici). 
These were of the greatest authority in the Roman State, because nothing 
of importance was done, respecting the public, either at home or abroad, 
in peace or at war, without consulting them. They professed to foretell 
future events chiefly from the flight, chirping or feeding of birds, and 
from the appearances of the heavens. In the time of Sulla (about b.c. 80) 
their number was fifteen. Their chief was termed Magister Collegii, or 
Augur Maximus. 

Being intrusted with the secrets of the Empire, they could not be 
removed from office, whatever crime they committed. They were first 
formed into a college by Numa, about b.c. 700. 

The badges of the Augurs, as we see them upon the coins, were as fol- 
lows: 1. The trabea, a sort of robe, striped with purple. 2. A cap of a 
conical shape, like that worn by the priests (pontiflces). 3. The lituus, or 
crooked staff. This waB carried in the right hand to mark out the quarters 
of the heavens. This object appears oftenest upon coins. This class of 
Augurs continued in existence even down to the time of Theodosius the 
Great, a.d. 379. 

When an Augur was about to make observations he selected the dark- 
est hour of night (" a little before day ") and chose an elevated place (called 
arax vel templum) where the view was open on all sides. Then, offering 
sacrifices and uttering a solemn prayer, he sat down with his face to the 
east, and veiled his head. In the coins of Caesar, as of future Emperor6, 
this veil is seen. Then with his lituus, he drew an imaginary line divid- 
ing the heavens from east to west and selected a spot in the celestial con- 
cave, to which his observations were limited. This portion he divided 
into four part6. Next he turned to the south and crossed the heavens with 
the lituus, and, all this being accomplished, drew his conclusions from the 
appearance above him. Imagine such a man as Caesar going through this 





Of nineteen coins, gold, silver and bronze, of Julius Caesar, from the 
illustrations on the fourth page. 

[The student will observe in these Readings: First, that the size of a 
Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture; Second, that each 
Metal is distinguished by an abbreviation,— A V (aurum) standing for 
gold; A R (argentttm) for silver; A E (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, 
words indiscriminately used in Numismatics. Third, that there are few 
punctuation points on Coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers 
to facilitate Readings. Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms 
of Greek letters here, but substitute modern type; and Fifth, that these 
Readings are prepared as well for the use of Learners as Experts. 

The varied and amazing incidents in the earlier life of Caesar— his re- 
lationship to the great Commoner Marius; his far-famed campaigns in the 
North; his advents, allocutions, victories and triumphs; also the brilliant ! 
facts of his literary career— all which a century later would afford subjects I 
for the grandest series of coins and medals, and, in the numismatic records | 
of a Hadrian, materials for thousands of richest groupings on coin-dies, 
— are wanting to the numismata of Julius Caesar. What is interesting in 
his money is connected with the last two or three years of his life. Yet, 
even with this drawback, his coins are rich in suggestive thought, and 
embody important facts in his career. 

No. 1. AE. A medallion, struck in the Central Mint, at Rome, 
which occupied the temple of Juno Moneta and neighboring buildings. 
This institution employed so many moneycrs and assistants that, two 
centuries later, in the reign of Aurelian (a.d. 270-275), when the work- 
men were suspected of extensive frauds, a formidable disturbance arose 
among them, and, to escape punishment, they excited the multitude to 
insurrection. Seven thousind soldiers and forty thousand employes of 
the mint were slain in quelling this " hard-money riot." 

The medallion before us was not struck in the life-time of its subject. 
His sudden " taking off " closed the great series of coins and medals in 
course of preparation. It was issued by his adopted son and successor, 
Augustus, as the portraits show. The reader will observe that to give 
symmetry 10 the page of engravings, the two sides of the medallion are 

Reverse. Head of Augustus Caesar to the right. Not laureated. 
Beardless. In the style of an antique bust. Hair curly. Nose prominent. 
Showing that a cabinet of ancient coins is a good source of classic models 
for painter and sculptor. The reader will recall 6uch faces as this in hi6 
own circle of acquaintance. 

Legend (abbreviated): CAESAR DIVI F; (supplied) — Caesaris Divi 
Filius; "the son of the deified Caesar." The Senate bestowed this title 
"deified" upon Julius Caesar before his death; and as Augustus was 
adopted by him in his will, he calls himself, " son of the deified Caesar! " 

Obverse. Laureate head of Julius Caesar to the right. Features 
wrinkled and careworn. Beardless (he never wore a beard). Inscription: 
DIVOS IVLIVS— "The Deified Julius." This substitution of the letter 
o for u (Divos for Dims) was not unusual with the Romans, although suf- 
ficiently perplexing to the reader. 

As Julius Caesar held the office of High Priest (Pontifex MaxUnus) and 
Chief Augur of the nation, it was but an easy step to pronounce him a 
god, and so give him a seat in the Pantheon while yet alive. 

No. 2, AE. A Greek imperial. It more strictly belongs to the scries of 
A ugustus, but is inserted here that we may present in one group the three 
friends and successors of Julius Cae6ar. 

Obverse. The jugated heads of the triumvirs,— Augustus, Mark 
Antony and Lepidus,— to the right. No inscription. The portraits are 
sharp cut as photographs, and undoubted likenesses. 

This five years' triumvirate was effected in the autumn of B.C. 43, eight- 
een months after the death of Julius Caesar. It was formed R. P. C. " for 
constituting the Republic." Terminating December 31, b.c 33, it was 
renewed for a second term of five years; but ere its close, an irreconcilable 
quarrel between Augustus and Antony broke it up, and- a.d. 31 the Roman 
world passed into the hands of Augustus. Lepidus lived in a retired situ- 
ation, holding only the office of Pontifex Maximus until his death, B.C. 13. 

Reverse. The image of Diana of Ephesus, full front. Legend 
abraded, and not readable. The word APXIEP for APXIEPEOE is "of 
the Chief Priest," (in the genitive case,) and the missing letters will 
supply the name of this High Priest, and his locality, whenever a duplicate 
of this rare and interesting coin shall be yielded up from the rich hoards 
concealed by mother earth. 

This form of Diana is peculiarly Ephesian, as the reader will perceive 
by comparing it with other Dianas. . The temple of Diana at Rome 
stood on the Aventine Hill, but the emblems of her worship were very 
different from those of this many-breasted creature, hung round with 
the heads of beasts, that signalized the great temple of Diana at Ephesus. 

We recall from Acts xix the remarks of the town clerk concerning this: 
" What man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians 
is a worshiper of the great goddess Diana, and of the image which fell 
down from Jupiter?" This coin probably acknowledges some costly gift 
or valued political favor granted by the Triumvirate to the far-famed city 
and temple of Diana. 

No. 3, AR. Obverse. Bald head of Caesar to the right. Not laureate. 
Behind the neck the lituus. Inscription (supplied): Caesar, Consul 4; 
"Caesar 4th time Consul." These consulate data afford unquestioned 
points all through our coin series that give the exact, year in which the 
monument was coined. Caesar was made consul for the first time B.C. 60, 
and the fourth time, b.c 45, beginning with New Tear's day. He was 
enjoying his fifth term when he was assassinated. 

Reverse. A crocodile to the right, the characteristic emblem of Egypt, 
and the river, of which, according to Herodotus, "Egypt is the gift." 
Legend: Aegupto Capta —" Egypt subdued." Other "Conquest Coins" 
will be seen iu our series. The subjugation of Egypt by Caesar was ef- 
fected following the battle of Pharsalia, August 9, B.C. 48. 

No. 4, AE. Struck at Berytus in Syria. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Caesar to the right. Features, etc., as in 
preceding. Behind the neck is a counter-mark, with C. C. for Cains 
Caesar, and an overflowing cornucopiae, the emblem of agricultural 

Reverse. A plowman urging a yoke of cattle to the right. This is the 
common emblem of the establishment of a Roman colony. Legend 
(abbreviated): COL IVL BER; (supplied) — Colonia Julia Berytus, "The 
Julian Colony or Berytus." In the exergue the letters ex s. c. are for Ex 
Senatus Consulto, " by decree of the Senate," denoting that this coin was 
struck by special edict of that body to commemorate the planting of the 
colony named. It is usually written S. C. 

Berytus, now Beyrout. and the seat of one of the most interesting mis- 
sionary stations of the present day, was an ancient town of Phoenicia, 
famous in the sixth century for its law college, and renowned as the 
locality of the fable of St. George and the Dragon, now stamped on some 
of the coinage of Great Britain. 

No. 5, AE. Obverse. The head of the goddess Venus to the right. 
Hair in curls, with long ringlets down the neck. No inscription. Letter 
S behind the neck, also in the Reverse, we cannot explain, although it is 
found in coins of other cities. 

Reverse. Two cornucopiae fastened at the stems, and overflowing 
with fruits and foliage. Inscription: VALENTIA. Valentia was a city 
in Spain, near Saguntum, originally founded by Junius Brutus. It was 
destroyed by Pompey, and styled by Pliny, long* afterward a colony. The 
symbol of the single or double cornucopiae always represents a country 
abounding in the fruits of the earth. 

No. 6, AE. A Greek Imperial. This is the Reverse face of No. 9. Its 
place in a historical series is with Mark Antony. 

Reverse. Double cornucopiae overflowing with fruits and foliage. 
Inscription: KAEOITATPA5 BA2IAI22H2 — "Of Queen Cleopatra." 

Here is a genuine portrait of one of the most famous (and infamous) 
women named in history. The reader will refer to his Classical Diction- 
ary to see how it is connected by turns with Julius Caesar, Mark Antony 
and Augustus. That Cleopatra was a woman of attractive features is evi- 
dent from all the portraits upon coins and busts. 

No. 7, AE. A colony-coin of Corinth. 

Obverse. Head of Venus to the right. No inscription. 

Reverse. Figure of a man seated, to the right. In his right hand a 
wand raised. His left extended as if speaking. Behind him the wings of 
Pegasus. Beneath a serpent in coils, to the right. All these objects were 
sacred to Minerva. The emblem of Corinth was Pegasus, the steed with 
which Minerva endowed Bellerophon, he having first bridled him. Where- 
fore he erected a temple at Corinth to that goddess. Inscription (sup- 
plied): " The Julian Colony at Corinth." 

No. 8, AE. A colony-coin of Corinth. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Caesar to the right. Inscription (sup- 
plied): " Praise to Julius, by the Corinthians." 

Reverse. Bellerophon mounted upon Pegasus attacking a lion. In 
the background a stag. Legend (abbreviated): L ATO IVLIO nVIR 
(supplied): " By L. Ato Julius the duum-vir." 

The duumvir was the officer in charge of the mint. In accordance with 
the custom of this and the next reign, these moneyers occupied the 
reverses of coins, with their names and titles. 

No. 9, AE. 

Obverse. Face of Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, to the right, in the 
habitude of Diana. In the words of Patin, "You see a face destined to 
inflame emperors and to confuse human affairs. Yet it was not so much 
her beauty, in which we may not compare her with others; but she con- 
ducted herself so that scarcely any one escaped her snares. Even Caesar, 
of all men born of women, was so captured that, Ptolemy being killed, he 
divided the kingdom between Cleopatra and her brother." Her appear- 



ance in the habitude of Diana refers to Isis, goddess of Egypt, another 
form of Diana. 

No. 10, AV. 

Obverse. The image and insignia of Victory. Head to the right, 
wings affixed to the neck. Inscription (abbreviated): C CAESAR DIC 
TER; (supplied) Caius Caesar Dictator Tertinra. "The third time Dic- 

Reverse. The pontifical vase. Name of L. Munatius Plancus, the 
Praefeclus XJrbis. This coin was struck by order of Plancus, to com- 
memorate the victory over Juba king of Africa, for which Caesar was 
made Dictator for the third time, B.C. 47. 

No. 11, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Caesar to the right, with inscription (sup- 
plied) Caesar Imperator, '■ Caesar the Emperor." 

Reverse. The Cancelli Comltioram, or latticed gallery in which the 
popular assemblies were held at Rome. Two logated figures are seen 
standing, casting votes into urns. The name of L. Mussidius Longus, the 
quartum-vir, is given. Below, the word CLOACIN, for Cloacina, a term 
applied to Venus to indicate her origin from the Sabines. Caesar claim- 
ing descent from Venus, all allusions upon his coins to that goddess arc 
complimentary to him. Aeneas, son of Venus and Anchises, is reported 
as leading a colony to Italy and so founding the Roman empire. In Coin 
No. 17, eeries of Augustus, is seen a representation of Aeneas bearing his 
aged father Anchises from the ruins of Troy. 

No. 12, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate and veiled head of Caesar to the right, in the 
pontifical habit, as denoting his office of Pontifex Maximus. Before him 
is the liluus. Inscription: Caesar Parens Patriae, "the Father of the 
Country." In succeeding reigns the term is usually given "Pater 
Patriae." It is often translated " the Parent and the Prince." 

No. 13, AR. 

Obverse. Not given here. Has the head of C. Julius Caesar, father of 
our subject. 

Reverse. A temple of Venus at Rome, in which Julius Caesar placed 
the statue of his father. Julius is represented standing in the vestibule 
of the temple in augural robes, with lituus in right hand. On the left is 
the altar, before which the Roman people were accustomed for a long 
time to sacrifice, to make vows, and to settle controversies. Above arc 
the words Divo Julio, "to the deified Julius," and a star. The temple 
has four columns. Legend (supplied): Consul Iterum, et Tertius Design 
natns. " The second time Consul, and designated the third." 

No. 14, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate and veiled head of Caesar to the right. Inscrip- 
tion: "To Caesar, Perpetual Dictator." 

Reverse. A female to the left, holding a victoriola in right hand. 
Left breast bare. The name of P. Servillius Macer is given as the moneyer 
or duum-vir in charge of the mint. The goddess has, at the end of a long 
wand, a star. 

No. 15, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Caesar to right. Inscription as in No. 
11. Augural apparatus as in several preceding coins. 

Reverse. Figure standing to left, with Victoriola in right hand. Spear 
held transversely. Left elbow supported on shield which rests on 
globe. The name of M. Mettius is given as chief of the mint that year. 
In front of the figure an indistinct object. 

No. 16, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Caesar to right. Inscription: "Caesar 
Dictator for the fourth time." 

Reverse. A biga or two-horse chariot driven by charioteer with jave- 
lin and shield. The name, M. Mettius, is seen in the exergue as the 
moneyer of that year. 

No. 17, AR. Struck to commemorate his victories over the Gauls, 
Germans and other nationB in the campaigns described in his commen- 
taries. The trophy seen in the reverse is the one erected after his victory 
over Pharnaccs, concerning which Caesar rendered his celebrated report 
Veni Vidi Vici. For in one day he came to the enemy — saw them — 
subdued them! Virgil describes this trophy in his lines commencing. 
"Ingentem quercum," etc. 

Obverse. Veiled head of Venus to the right. Behind the head, an 
object used by the Pontifex. The letters IIT signify secundum tropamm. 
"the second trophy" of victory erected by Caesar against Mithridates. 

Reverse. Roman trophy with the word "Caesar" below. A laurel 
crown elegantly wrought on the left, the wreath of victory. 

No. 18, AR. Struck in commemoration of the same victory over 

Obverse. Head of Venus to right, with hair elaborately dressed, hav- 
ing an elegant Cupid wrought into the necklace behind. No inscription. 
The attire of the goddess is fieured here with exquisite art. 

Reverse. A Roman trophy elaborately constructed. Two captives 
beneath facing different ways. Word Caesar in exergue. The captives 

are of each sex in attitudes of profoundost dejection. Asses' heads above 
them, no uncommon emblem In the coins, four centuries later we see 
this idea of captives more largely extended. 

No. 19, AR. 

Obverse. Head of Venus to the right, with hair prettily bound about 
with ribbon. 

Reverse. A Roman trophy. Legend ('supplied), Caesar Imperator, 
" Caesar (proclaimed) Emperor." It was the cu torn of the Legions after 
a victory, to proclaim their general " Imperator." The variety in the three 
trophies given is striking. 

Among the denarii of Julius Caesar we also find the following, viz. : 

1. A radiated bust of the Sun, the likeness three quarters front, which 
is uncommon, portraits upon early coins being usually in profile. 

2. The full-length figure of Venus Nicephorus to the left, in a graceful, 
bending attitude, her right hand supported by the usual staff. 

3. Hercules holding the triquetra in his hand, his right foot resting on 
the prow of a vessel. This triquetra (trinacria) is the emblem of Sicily, 
where this coin was struck. 

4. The image of Minerva marching superbly to the left, with helmet, 
javelin, shield and trophy. A serpent moves with equal speed by her side. 
(This is a bronze coin.) The majesty of this figure of " the maiden god- 
d ss" is suggested, doubtless, by Homer. The accompanying serpent 
denotes Felicity, Vigilance, Concord, Prudence, Health, Power and Vic- 
tory, according to the relation it bears to the principal figure on the coin. 
As ajcompanion of Minerva (Pallas) in coins of the Athenians, the serpent 
implies Providential care {Procidentia). 

5. A denarius, struck by the quartum-vir, or mint-master, has on the 
obverse an excellent laureate bust of Caesar to the right; and on the re- 
verse those symbols of their gods by which the Senate dedicated temples 
in honor of Caesar. These were the caducaeus, cornucopia, globe, and 
other objects, grouped in artistic manner. 

6. A denarius struck by the Questor of the Casilian Colony, T. S. 
Graccus, gives upon the obverse the laureate bust of Caesar, with S.C. for 
Senatus Consulto.— "By Decree of the Senate,"— an expression rarely, if 
ever, found upon any save bronze coins, after this period. Upon the reverse 
are emblems of the establishment of a colony, viz., the Roman plow (type 
of agriculture), the scepter (type of authority), the standard of the Cohort 
and the eagle-standard of the Legion. In examining the numerous allu- 
sions to military affairs upon coins, we note that a Roman soldier was 
equally expert as a cavalry-soldier, an infantry-soldier, and a member of 
the marines. He was trained to cultivate the ground, to throw up fortifi- 
cations, construct bridges and build ships. He was practiced in running, 
leaping, vaulting, wrestling and swimming, either armed or unarmed. He 
was able to make long and rapid marches four miles to the hour, every sol- 
dier carrying sixty pounds weight upon his back. He was expert in tools 
for field-work. In camp he was coutinually employed, no intervals of 
idleness, no time for dissipation, being allowed him. His home was the 
camp; war was his business; military exercises, his amusement; success, 
his glory. In our coin-sheet of Otho are two large cuts of special interest 
in this connection. In the coin-sheet of Vitellius is a large bust of one of 
the greatest masters of war Rome ever produced, Julius Caesar himself; 
and below, on the same page, the arms, offensive and defensive, with 
which the world was guided and governed. The clothing of the soldier 
was the sogram (mantle, cloak) over which the sword was buckled. That 
of the general, often seen in our coins, was called the pnludamentvm; it 
was white, purple or scarlet. The common soldier wore under-garments 
of cloth, sandals, and, later, caligae. 

" If we examine the intellectual character of Julius Caesar we see that 
he was gifted by nature with the most various talents, and was distin- 
guished by the most extraordinary genius and attainments in the most 
diversified pursuits. He was at one and the same time a general, a states- 
man, a lawgiver, a jurist, an orator, a poet, an historian, a philologer, a 
mathematician and an architect! He was equally fitted to excel in all. 
and has given proofs that he would have surpassed almost all other men 
in any subject to which he devoted the energies of bis extraordinary mind. 
Julius Caesar was the greatest man of antiquity."— Smith's Diet, of Greek 
and Rom. Hist., Myth, and Biog. 

The ideal of Caesar, as formed in the mind of the third Napoleon, will 
not be without interest in this connection. He says: "To establish a 
durable order of things there wanted a man who, raising himself above 
vulgar passions, should unite in himself the essential qualities and just 
ideas of each of his predecessors, avoiding their faults as well as their 
errors. To the greatness of soul, and love of the people of certain trib- 
unes, it was needful to join the military genius of great generals and the 
strong sentiments of the Dictator in favor of order and the hierarchy. 

"The man capable of so lofty a mission already existed; but perhaps, 
in spite of his name, he might have still remained long unknown if the 
penetrating eye of Sylla had not discovered him in the midst of the 
crowd, and, by persecution, pointed him out to public attention. That 
man was Caesar."— Napoleon II, Life of Caesar. 






American AssQeiaition q£ ^umismsntists. 


[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome from 
B.C. 47 to a.d. 96 Auqustus was the second. The one who preceded him 
was Julius Caesar, who ruled B.C. 47-44. The ten who succeeded him 
under this title were Tiberius, a.d. 14-37; Caligula, 37-41; Claudius, 
41-54; Nero, 54-68; Galba, 68-69; Otho, 69; Vitellius, 69; Vespasian, 
69-79; Titus, 79-81, and Domitian, 81-96.] 

Caius Octavius Julius Caesar Augustus, second of the Caesars, Em- 
peror of Rome B.C. 31 to a.d. 14, was born at Velitrae, twenty miles cast 
of Rome. September 23, B.C. 63. The rulers of the nation were SI Tullius 
Cicero, the orator, and C. Antonius, Consuls. Wonderful signs, it was 
asserted, preceded and followed his entrance into the world so long sub- 
jected to his control. His father was Caius Octavius, who in his time 
filled the offices of Military Tribune, Questor, Plebeian Aedilc, Judex 
Questiomim and Praetor. lie died when Augustus was a child. The 
mother was Atia, daughter of Julia, sister of Julius Caesar, who, upon 
the death of her first husband, married M. Marcius Philippus, Consul, 
B.C. 56. 

This grand-nephew of Julius Caesar, the subject of our sketch, was 
early thrust forward by doting friends upon the field of action. He was 
sufficiently precocious that at the immature age of twelve he delivered the 
funeral oration of his grandmother, Julia, who had conducted his educa- 
tion with the greatest care. In his sixteenth year (viz. a.d. 46) he assumed 
the toga tiriUt, and was made a member of the College of Pontiffs, of 
which, many years later, he became Pontifex Maximus. In the great 
triumph of Julius Caesar, for his African victories, a.d. 46, which lasted 
several days, Augustus, then but sixteen years of age, was permitted by 
his great-uncle to ride on horseback behind the triumphal car. Vespasian 
imitated this, 117 years later, by admitting his son Domitian to his 
triumph. Augustus was with the army in Appollonia when the news of 
the assassination of Julius Caesar (March 15, B.C. 44) reached him. He 
immediately departed for Italy and learned of his adoption into the Julia 
Gens, the family of which Julius was a member, and that the Dictator 
himself had made him his heir. The soldiers saluted him "Caesar," 
and he assumed the name which is at the head of this sheet, save that the 
word "Augustus," as an imperial title, was afterward added, Senatus C'on- 
sulto, "by Decree of the Senate." 

January, b.c. 43, Augustus was appointed to the command of the army, 
enjoying the title and insignia of Praetor, with peculiar privileges. Circum- 
stances, always favorable to this son of fortune, soon threw the entire 
command into his hands. In August of that year he was made Consul by 
special " S. C," ten years earlier than the legal period. 

The first triumvirate between Augustus, Mark Antony and Lepidus 
was formed b.c. 43, for five years. The full expression of this combina- 
tion was triumviri rei publicae constituendae, "a triumvirate for constitut- 
ing the Republic." Their first act was to proscribe their personal enemies 
and destroy the Republican party, 2,000 Knights and 300 Senators per- 
ished. The triumvirs confiscated the estates of the murdered men for 
their own benefit and for bribes to the soldiers. In all this Augustus was 
equally cruel and rapacious with the others, and in this general storages the 
great Cicero fell. 

The battles of Philippi, October, b.c. 42, were gained by Augustus and 
Antony. These sealed the fate of the assassins of Caesar. B.C. 37 the 
office of triumvir was renewed for a second term of five years. Novem- 
ber 13, b.c. 36, Augustus celebrated an ovation at Rome for his numerous 
successes. B.C. 33 he was again elected Consul, but resigned within one 
day. Lepidus was by this time quietly dropped from the triumvirate, and 
in b.c. 31 the final struggle began between Augustus and Antony. The dou- 
ble fight (by sea and land) at Actium, September 2, b.c. 31, resulted in the 
complete success of Augustus and the ruin and speedy death of Antony. 

And now, for forty-five years, the life of Augustus, as the head of the 
Roman world, was comparatively quiet. The Senate and people vied 
with each other in devising for him new honors and distinctions, as they 
had done to Julius before him. Many extraordinary privileges were con- 
ferred. Augustus twice closed the temple of Janus, viz. B.C. 29 and 25 
because peace had been restored throughout the empire. Some authors 
say it was closed a third time about the period of the birth of Jesus. The 
title of " Emperor forever " was granted to Auguslus, also the name of 
Augustus (sacred, venerable, august), which was afterward conferred upon 
his successor, and continues in use among some of the European mon- 
archs to the present day. . 

B.C. 23 he entered upon his eleventh and last Consulship. Then he 
accepted the imperittm proeonsulare for life, by which he became the high- 
est authority in the Roman provinces; also the Iribunitia potestas for life, 
by which his inviolability was legally established and he was practically 
invested with the kingly power. He was formally exempted from the 
penal operation of all the laws of the Empire, and B.C. 12, on the death 
of his ancient partner, Lepidus, he entered upon the office of Pontifex 

Augustus constructed roads and works of public utility. The standards 
and prisoners lost in Purthia. by Antony, were restored under his rule. 
Every ten years he went through the form of resigning the Empire, but 
resumed it again at the formal request of the Senate. He adopted Tiber- 
ius, his step-son, to be his son and successor. He died in the arms of 
Livia, his faithful wife, at Nola, in Campania. August 29, a.d. 14, aged 76 
years. In his last moments he inquired of his friends " whether he had 
acted his part well in the drama of human life." 

The first wife of Augustus was Clodia. the second Scribonia. by whom 
he had one daughter, Julia. Divorcing Scribonia, for cause, he took from 
her husband Livia Drusilla and made her his third wife. She was the 
mother of his successor, Tiberius. The licentious behavior of his only 
daughter, Julia, was a source of great unhappiness to Augustus, and in 
general we may indorse the views of a distinguished writer, that "he 
was one of those unhappy men whom fortune surrounds with all her out- 
ward splendor and who can yet partake but little of the general happiness 
which they establish or promote." 

The disaster to the legions in Germ .ny under Varus, a d. 9, was the 
most serious misfortune that Augustus ever encountered. This subject 
is treated in the coin-sheet of Tiberius. 

A great celebration under the head of Seculares was held by Augustus 
B.C. 17, to commemorate the establishment of Rome e.c. 753. There are 
but few coins commemorating this event, and we must refer to the coin- 
sheet of Domitian for engravings illustrating a similar celebration. 

The birth of Jesus Christ, which occurred (according to the received 
era) e.c. 4, during the government of Augustus, has no recognition upon 
coins, nor should we expect it. But nine centuries later the portrait of 
the " Child of the Star and ^ong " was impressed upon the money of 
Constantinople as "the King of Kings I " 

Augustus was the earliest numismatic collector of whom we have the 
record. He made up a fine cabinet of coins from which he conferred pres- 
ents upon his friends. This collection was probably burned with the 
library a.d. 80, in the reign of Titus. 

It is to the lasting fame of this Emperor that, in a great and munifi- 
cent spirit, he gathered around him such a company of poets, historians 
and men eminent in the arts as no other Roman ruler had. The names of 
Virgil, Horace, Ovid, etc., do not appear upon his coins, although 

" The temples of the gods, 
The fanes of heroes and Cyclopean halls, 
His liberal hand adorned." 

The denarius struck by Augustus was worth the ten asses which its 
name denotes. It contained about forty-five grains of pure silver, valued at 
fifteen cents Federal currency; but in the time of Gordianus Pius, 238- 
244, the metal was adulterated by two-thirds of its value, having only fif- 
teen grains of pure silver. Under Diocletian, 286-305, it recovered nearly 
its original purity. 

The appearance of the Wolf and Twins upon the coins of Roman Em- 
perors for many centuries recalls the nervous lines of Byron, referring to 
the great bronze image of the wolf at Rome, that has been smitten with 

"And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome, 
She-wolf! whose brazen-imaged dugs impart 
The milk of conquest yet, within the dome 
Where, as a monument of antique art, 
Thou standest! Mother of the mighty heart. 
Where the great founder sucked from thy wild teat, 
Scorched by the Roman Jove's ethereal dart. 
And thy limbs black with lightning,— dost thou yet 
Guard thine immortal cubs, nor thy fond charge forget?" 

— ( Childe Harold, Hi., 88.) 



During the reign of Augustus, were born Caligula, Claudius, Galba 
and Vespasian, afterward Emperors. 

At the funeral of Augustus his body was borne to the pile on the 
shoulders of Senators, as was that of the good Nerva, eighty-four years 
later, and the ashes of those two princes were mingled in the same sepul- 
cher. Compare this with the last decree of the Senate concerning Nero, 
viz., " that he should be put to death more majorum" (in the manner of 
the fathers) that is, his head should be fastened in a fork (furca), and he 
be whipped to death 1 

The Praetorian Guards, or body-guard of the Emperors, so often alluded 
to upon coins, first acquired their importance under the organization of 
Augustus. Gibbon says these bands, whose licentious fury was the first 
symptom and cause of the decline of the Roman Empire, were increased 
by Augustus to the number of 15,000. Sensible that laws might color but 
that arms alone could maintain his dominion, he gradually formed this 
powerful body of guards in constant readiness to protect his person, to 
awe the Senate, and either to prevent or crush the first motions of rebel- 
lion. He distinguished these favored troops by double pay and superior 
privileges, but as their formidable aspect would at once have alarmed and 
irritated the Roman people, three cohorts only were stationed in the 
Capitol, the remainder being dispersed in the adjacent towns of Italy. 
After fifty years of public serv'tude, Tiberius assembled them at Rome 
in a permanent camp, fortified with skillful care and placed upon a com- 
manding position. 



Of twenty-four coins, silver and bronze, of the Emperor Augustus, from 

the illustrations on the fourth page. 

[The student will observe in these Readings: First, that the size of a 
Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture. Second, that each 
metal is distinguished by an abbreviation,— AV(am-um) standing for gold; 
AR (argentum) for silver; AE (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, words 
indiscriminately used in Numismatics. Third, that there are few punctu- 
ation points on Coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to 
facilitate Readings. Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms of 
Greek letters here, but substitute modern type; and, Fifth, that these 
Readings are prepared as well for the use of Learners as experts.'] 

No. 1, AE. A Medallion struck by the people of Caesarea Augusta. 
The symmetry of the sheet is preserved by removing the two faces to 
opposite corners. 

Obverse. Unlaureate head of Augustus to the right. Beardless; 
bust not draped. Inscription: AVGVSTVS. 

Reverse. A wreath of laurel inclosing a ring, within which are letters 
of large size, C.A., for " Caesarea Augusta." Salduba. a city of Tarracon, 
in Spain, changing its name, adopted this in honor of Augustus. When 
Spain was divided between the Emperor and the people. Tarracon was 
made into a colony and peopled by veterans of the fourth Legion (Scy- 
thia), the sixth (Ferrutae or Iron-armed), and the tenth (Fretensis). This 
colony was»Immunis, that is exempt by the Emperor from public contri- 
butions and duties. Hence this medallion to commemorate so many bene- 
fits received from their most munificent patron. His continued victories 
are suggested by the laurel crown. As late as the Popedom of John XXII 
this was the primary city of Arragon. 

No. 2, AR. 

Obverse. The unlaureate head of Augustus to the right. Inscrip- 
tion (abbreviated): TR POT VIII CAESAR AVG; (supplicd)-Tribu- 
nitia Potestate 8; Caesar Augustus. The words "Tribunitia Potestate" 
upon coins are always read in the ablative case, and translated " exercis- 
ing the Tribunitian Power"; here " for the 8th time." 

Reverse. Two male figures, togated, standing; their right hands are 
joined over an altar. Upon some coins of this stamp is seen a hog about 
to be immolated Legend (abbreviated): C ANTIST VETVS III VIR 
FOEDVS P R CVM GABIN; (supplied)— Cains Antistius Vetus Triumvir 
Foedus Populi Romani cum Gabinio — "Antistius Vetus, the Triumvir, 
a covenant of the Roman people with Gabinius." This type was struck 
by Antistius, mint-master, in memory of the father, seeing that the elder 
under the name of Antistius sprung out of the Gabians, from a Latin city. 
It will be seen that the privileges assumed by these mint-masters to put 
whatever they pleased on the money, expired with Augustus. 

No. 3, AE. 

The Obverse has the laureate head of Augustus with Inscription, 
" Caesar, Son of the deified Augustus, Father of the Country." 

Reverse. An Altar. From each side a winged figure of Victory faces 
inwards holding a palm-branch in one hand and a laurel wreath in the 
other. The altar is highly ornamented. Underneath are the words (sup- 
plied) Romae et Augusta — "To Rome and to Augustus." This altar is 
usually styled " the Altar of Lyons.." At the time Drnsus was in Ger- 

many, B.C. 11, the barbarians were preparing to cross the Rhine. Drusus, 
then at Lugdunum (now Lyons, France) invited all the cities of the pro- 
vince to display their loyalty to Rome by erecting a stately altar at the 
confluence of the Rhine and Saone. Sixty of the communities accepted 
the invitation. The altar was dedicated to Augustus (a god, by decree of 
the Senate), and the names of the sixty states were inscribed upon it. 
The colossal statue of the Emperor himself was set up within the munici- 
pal emblems of the sixty communities. It was dedicated August 10. B.C. 
11, and a festival was instituted, which continued for several centuries to 
be annually solemnized with shows and musical performances. 

No. 4, AE. 

Obverse. Unlaureate head of Augustus to the right. Inscription 
(abbreviated): SPQR CAESARI AVGVSTO; (supplied)— Senatus Popu- 
lusque Romanus Caesari Augusto— " The Senate and Roman People to 
Augustus Caesar." 

Reverse. A soldier to the left, in fine military attitude, as if looking 
earnestly toward a distant object. In his right hand, alabarum; in his 
left, a parazonium. Legend (supplied): Pro Salute et Reditu Jovi Optimo 
Maximo Sacra Vota Publice Suscepta— "For the safety and the return (of 
Augustus) to Jupiter, the Greatest and Best, the Sacred Vows are publicly 

This coin forcibly illustrates the deference paid by the early Romans 
to the Emperor. A matter of a brief absence from the Capitol, which 
would now serve for a newspaper paragraph, was impressed upon a whole 
mintage of coins, distributed through all the land. 

No. 5, AE. Struck at Italica, a city of Spain. 

The Obverse has the head of Augustus, with the word " Bilbihs." 

Reverse. A mounted warrior, lance in right hand, armed cap-a -pie, 
galloping to the right. The attitude of steed and rider is superb. Beneath 
is the word "Italica." This horseman was the symbol of the ancient 
city of Bilbilis, then called "Italica." When Augustus bestowed upon the 
city very great privileges, they gratefully struck coins in acknowledgment. 

No. 6, AE. 

Reverse. The temple of Jupiter Tonans (" the Thunderer ") upon 
the Capitoline Hill. Four columns in front. Beneath are the words 
10 VI DEO— "To the god Jupiter.'" In the field the letters S. C, "Senatus 
Consulto, " by Decree of the Senate. 

Augustus constructed many public works, as, for instance, the Forum, 
the temple of Mars the Avenger (Mars Ultor); and that of Apollo on the 
Palatine Hill. The one here figured was built by Augustus in devout 
gratitude for deliverance from great peril in a thunder-storm. To the 
treasury of this temple he presented at one donation, gold, gems and 
pearls to an immense amount. 

No. 7, AR. 

Obverse. Unlaureate head of Augustus to the right. Inscription: 
Caesar Augustus. 

Reverse. The Civic Wreath given a Roman who saved the life of a 
citizen; composed of oak-leaves and acorns. Inscription: Ob Cives Ser- 
vatos, "for saving citizens," or "for preserving the lives of citizens." 
(The engraver of this cut erroneously makes the word cives, civis.) 

No. 8, AE. 

Obverse. Victory to the left, standing upon a globe. In her left hand 
is a palm branch; in her right, a laurel wreath. Inscription (supplied): 
Victoriae Augusti— " To the Victory of Augustus" (properly, "to the 
goddess Victory, tutelary of Augustus"). 

Reverse. Three military standards erect. Legend (abbreviated): 
CHO (for COH) PRAE PHIL; (supplied)— Cohortis Praetoriae Philippen- 
sis— " Of the Praetorian Cohort at Philiopi." 

The victories at Philippi over the assassins of Caesar are too well 
known for comment. These standards are not legionary, but those of the 
Cohorts or lesser divisions. Mark Antony struck a very large number of 
coins of this class, and so did Gallienus nearly three centuries later. 

No. 9, AE. 

The Obverse has the head of Augustus like No. 4. 

Reverse. A she-wolf, hungry and gaunt, to the right. Inscription 
(abbreviated): MVN ILERDA, Municipium Ilerda— "The City Ilerda." 
This place, now Lerida, in Spain, lies in the bend of the river Sycor. 
Whether our wolf was the emblem of the city, or a token of the general 
domination of Rome expressed by this beast, may be debated. There is 
something horrible in the air of this Pyrennean wolf. 

No. 10, AE. 

The Obverse has the head of Augustus like No. 4. 

Reverse. A vexillum erected upon an altar. Inscription (abbrevi- 
ated): CAESAR AVGVSTA M PORCI CN FAD II VIR (with a dash over 
the II); (supplied)— Caesarea Augusta. Marca Porcio et CneoFado Duuni- 
viris— " The Colony of Caesarea Augusta; Marcus Porcius and Cneus 
Fadus being mint-masters." 

No. 1 refers to the colony Caesarea Augusta in Spain. The standard 
upon the altar indicates the Roman reverence to the gods, whom they 
worshiped as the authors of all their goods and givers of all their power. 



In forming a colony, they first constructed an altar and placed a standard 
upon it, the united indicia of Divine and Roman power. 

No. 11, AE. 

Obverse has the head of Augustus, with inscription: " To the deified 
Augustus." It will be remembered that Augustus, like Julius Caesar, was 
made " a present god," as Horace expresses it, even in his life-time, and 
priests and temples were consecrated to him as a divinity. 

Reverse. Neptune standing to the left. A dolphin in right hand; a 
trident in left. Ilis right foot is on a prow. Legend (supplied): Btrytus. 
The Colony Julia Augusta at Berytus, (now Beyrout, in Syria,) is referred 
to in our coin No. 4 of Julius Caesar. Pliny calls it Felix Julia, " the 
Happy Julian Colony," from Julius Caesar. The Phoenicians, in whose 
territory Beyrout stood, gave good aid to Augustus with their ships, at 
Actium, and he in gratitude bestowed corresponding benefits upon their 
cities. Hence this coin. 

No. 12, AE. 

Obverse. Dnlaureate head of Augustus to the left, an unusual facing. 
Behind it a Caducaeus, as an emblem of much good. Inscription (sup- 
plied): '■ The Emperor Augustus, Son of the deified Julius." 

Reverse. A Labyrinth, which recalls that at Thebes or Memphis. 
Here it suggests the conquest of Egypt under Cleopatra, as the Caducaeus, 
the glory of Augustus, victor of nations. In a coin of Marcus Aurclius 
(a.d. 161-180) the same attribution appears with the addition of a croco- 
dile. Pliny also describes labyrinths at Crete, Lemnos and Italicus. 

No. 13, AE. 

The Obverse is not figured here. 

Reverse. A colonist driving a yoke of oxen to the left, like coin No. 
4 in Julius Caesar. Legend: tEmerita. Augusta Emerita was a city in 
Spain, on the Tagus, now called Merida. It was named from the meri- 
torious character of the soldiery by whom Augustus colonized it, and 
they struck this coin in gratitude for favors received from the Emperor. 
After the battle of Actium. Augustus disbanded a large part of his legions, 
and with them formed numerous colonies along the frontiers of the Em- 
pire, all of which appear in coins. 

No. 14, AE. A Greek Imperial, struck at Cydonia, at Crete. 

Reverse. A she-wolf, gaunt and hideous, suckling a boy. Legend 
(abbreviated): KYAON. (Supplied): KYAflNIA— " Cydonia." 

The people of Cydonia, one of the principal cities of Crete, struck this 
coin to Augustus in gratitude for restoring their liberty. Like the Phoe- 
nicians, they had aided him in his contests with Antony, and in return 
received valued privileges. 

No. 15, AE. A Greek Imperial, struck at Antioch, Cilicia. 

The Obverse has the head of Augustus, with inscription (Anglice): 
" Caesar Augustus, the (High) Priest." 

Reverse. An elegant and complicated crown. Legend: APXIE- 
PATIKON ANTIOXEI2 — "The Pontificia (Pontifical condition) by the 
people of Antioch." 

Upon the death of Lepidus, the Pontifex Maximus, B.C. 12, that office 
was assumed by Augustus, whereupon the magistrates of the pontifical 
college at Antioch struck this coin in commemoration. The crown is the 
one styled Corona Pontificia. 

No. 16, AE. A Greek imperial, struck at Cos. 

Reverse. The club of Hercules and a Serpent, wound about a wand 
to the left. Legend: 20*OKAH2 KSHfiN— "Sophocles: of the Cossans." 

Sophocles — a common name in that region to this day — was praefeot, 
either of the temple of Hercules in the city of Cos, or of the island itself. 
The Cossans were devout worshipers of Hercules, whose club distin- 
guishes the coin. The serpent, twisted about the rod, refers to a richly- 
endowed temple of Esculapius which stood on that island. 

No. 17, AE. A Greek imperial, struck at Segestes, in Sicily. 

The Obverse has the head of Augustus, with the words, " Or the 

Reverse. Aeneas to the left, carrying his father Anchises and his pen- 
ates, or household gods, from the city of Troy. lulus, the youthful son 
of Aeneas, is seen following. The Legend, if there was any, is abraded. 
The affecting story of Aeneas bearing his aged father from the burning 
city is a familiar one. 

No. 18, AE. A Greek imperial, struck at Damascus, Syria. 

Reverse. The tutelary god of the city of Damascus seated, to the 
left, upon a pile of rocks, her head adorned with a turreted crown. In her 
left hand is an overflowing cornucopiae; in her right a couple of dates, 
the fruit of the palm, abundant in thai region, and an emblem of abun- 
dance; or, they may be prunes, for which Damascus is famous. Beneath 
her feet is the figure of a man, with his arms in the attitude of swimming. 
This is also an emblem of the neighboring city of Antioch, and implies 
that the two cities united in striking this coin to Augustus. 

No. 19, AE. This is a Restoration Coin, struck in honor of Au- 
gustus, by the Emperor Titus (a.d. 79-81). 

Reverse. A funeral altar, styled "the Altar of Providence," having 
horns at the corners. Legend (supplied): Imperator Titus Vespasianus 

Augustus Restituta— " The Emperor Titus Vespasian Augustus; a restored 
coin." S. C, Senatus Consulto, "By Decree of the Senate." Providen- 
tiae for Ara Providentiae, " the Altar of Providence." Titus did himself 
credit in his brief reign by restoring the coins of his more worthy prede- 

No. 20, AE. A Restoration Coin of Augustus, like No. 19, but struck 
by the Emperor Nerva (a.d. 96-98). 

Reverse. Thunder-bolts (fulmina). Inscription (supplied): Imper- 
ator Nerva Caesar Augustus Restorata, " The Emperor Nerva Caesar 
Augusta; a restored coin." S. C, Senatus Consulto, "By Decree of 
the Senate." Nerva, like Titus, reigned but two years; but in that inter- 
val made himself a good name in the mint by restoring the coins of his 
honored predecessors. 

No. 21, AE. A Restoration Coin of Nerva, like Nos. 19 and 20. 

Reverse. A globe, with the prow of a ship in front. Legend: the 
same as No. 20. 

No. 22, AE. A Greek imperial, struck at Smyrna. 

Obverse. The jugated heads of Augustus and his wife Livia to the 
right. His head is laureate, the only instance of the kind upon this sheet. 
Her bust is modestly draped. Inscription (in Greek): 2MYPNAIOI 
2EBA2T0I2— "The Smyrneans to the Augustus's" (or, " to the Emperor 
and Empress"). 

Reverse. A Female Figure to the front, with turreted head. In her 
right hand a scepter, in her left a gloriola. Below her left arm an eagle 
stands upon a short piHar. Legend: AIONY2I02, KOAAYBA2I02 — 
"Dionysius Collybasius," praefect of the city. 

The union of the two heads on the Obverse denotes concord. The 
group on the reverse, probably, represents the glory of Rome. 

Livia was the mother of Tiberius, who succeeded Augustus; also of the 
elder Drusus, by her first husband. She then married Augustus, and was 
made his executor. 

No. 23, AE. A Greek imperial, struck at Samos. 

The Reverse has the head of Augustus, like the preceding, with the 
inscription, " the Senate of the gods." 

Obverse. Head of Livia, wife of Augustus, to the right. Under her 
chin, a crescent. Head is most elaborately dressed. Inscription: MHNH 
2AMION— "The Luna of the Sameans." This crescent emblem, now 
the national attribution of the Moslem, is common enough upon ancient 

No. 24, AE. A Greek imperial, struck at Samos, like the last. 

The Reverse has the head of Augustus, with inscription as No. 23. 

Obverse. Head of Livia, wife of Augustus to the right. Drapery of 
bust fastened at right shoulder with a button. Head decorated much as 
in the last. Inscription: 0EAN PilMHN— " The goddess, Rome." 

The frequent appearance of standards upon the coin-cuts given in these 
sheets will excite the interest of the reader. An army, under the Romans, 
recalls the vivid language of the Hebrew,— it was emphatically "an army 
with banners." The rabbinical writers describe the great standards of the 
twelve tribes of Israel with minuteness. They were all prominent objects, 
as the Crowned Lion for Judah, the ravening Wolf for Benjamin, etc. But 
those of the Romans were more simple. The oldest military standard was 
the manipulus, or bundle of hay fastened to the top of a pole. Hence the 
term maniple, applied to the company or smaller section of the forces. 
This was afterward changed for a spear adorned with shields, images of 
the gods and the figure of an open hand (see our coin No. 2 of Caligula). 
The standard of the Legion itself was an eagle, ordinarily of silver, some- 
times of gold (or gilt), perched, as it were, with expanded wings, upon the 
top of a spear. But various Legions had, besides their eagle, some dis- 
tinctive objects, as the boar, the stork, the ox, etc. etc. The standard of 
the Cavalry (Vexillum) was square, as in Nos. 4 and 10 of our coins of 
Augustu s. 

The standards of various Legions are depictured upon the coins of the 
Antonia Gens, of which Mark Antony was chief. The Obverses of these 
denarii show a galley with ten or twelve oars on a side; the prow armed 
with a trident and bearing a vexillum; the epigraph is ANT AVG III VIR 
RPC. The Reverses exhibit three military standards each, the center 
being an eagle with wings spread as for flight. The two on the sides are 
garnished with shields, the crescent moon, and other objects. In the field 
of the coin are the letters denoting the enrolled number of the Legion, 
viz.: LEG II; LEG IIII; LEG VI; LEG VIII, etc., up to XXIII. These 
Legions had served under Mark Antony with great devotion. His coins 
also present epigraphs complimentary to the Cohorts, as Cohortium Prae- 
toriarum, and Cohortis Speculatorum. The naval forces are not forgotten 
in these numismatical compliments, as we see by LEG CLASSICAE. 
Two of the Legions are named as well as numbered, viz., the Lybica and 
Antiqua. In the coins of Gallienus, nearly three centuries later, every 
Legion has its peculiar name and is designated by some well-known 
object, which was selected by the Legions (corresponding somewhat to 
the modern idea of corps-badges), such as the Goat, Pegasus, the god Mars, 
the Wolf and Twins, the Boar, the Centaur, the goddess Minerva, etc. 


Asksriesa AsmQiskti&si Qt Hmmmmsimts-, 


[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome from 
B.C. 47 to a.d. 96, Tibebius, a.d. 14-37, was Ihe third. The two who pre- 
ceded him, under this title, were Julius Caesar, b.c. 47-44, and Augustus. 
b.c. 31-a.d. 14. The nine who succeeded him, Caligula, a.d. 37-41; Clau- 
dius. 41-54; Nero, 54-68; Galba, 68-69; Otho, 69; Vitellius, 69; Ves- 
pasian, 69-79; Titus, 79-81, and Dojiitian. 81-96.J 

Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero, third of the Caesars, Emperor of Rome 
a.d. 14 to 37. was bom November 17, b.c. 42. His father was Tiberius 
Claudius Nero, who served as Questor under Julius Caesar, b.c. 48, and 
commanded a fleet, and as a reward was admitted to the College of Priests. 
After much other service he died about B.C. 34. The mother of the Em- 
peror was Livia Drusilla, who, after the birth of Tiberius, was divorced 
from her first husband and married to Augustus, then triumvir with Jtark 
Anthony and Lepidus, and afterward Emperor. This transaction, so much 
in accordance with Roman manners, gave her no discredit; for historians 
unite in extolling her purity of life and conduct. 

The person of Tiberius was tall and well made. He had robust health. 
His eyes were large, his face handsome. He was carefully educated, and 
proficient as well in the Greek as the Latin tongues. As a speaker and 
writer he evinced considerable talent, his master in rhetoric being Theo- 
doras of Gadara. He wrote a commentary of his own life; also Greek 
poems, and a lyric poem on the death of Julius Caesar. In military cour- 
age he was deficient. He had a jealous and suspicious temper, and 
became, later in life, a monster of cruelty. He was unsocial, melancholy 
and reserved. " He was the prince of hypocrites." 

At the triumphal entry of Augustus into Rome, B.C. 29, Tiberius, then 
thirteen years of age. rode on the left of Augustus, as Augustus, sixteen 
years before, had accompanied Julius Caesar on a similar occasion. 

Tiberius was three times married,— first to Vipsania Agrippina, whom 
he divorced while she was pregnant; he was married, b.c. 11, to Julia, 
daughter of Augustus. By her he had one child who died in early youth. 

In public offices Tiberius was at various times tribunvs militum, and 
conducted an army, b.c. 20, to Armenia. He joined in the campaign, 
B.c. 15, against the Rheti; B.C. 13 he served Consul the first time; b.c. 11 
he was engaged against the Dalmatians and Pannonians; b.c. 7 he served 
Consul the second time; b.c. 6 he obtained the IribuaUia poteslas for five 
years, and then retired for seven years to Rhodes to avoid his wife Julia, 
whose licentious conduct was patent to all. On his return she had been 
banished by her father, the Emperor, to Pandataria, and he never saw her 

About a.d. 4, Augustus adopted Tiberius (his stepson) as his son and 
successor, all those whose age and relationship were superior to his hav- 
ing passed away. From this time to his accession to the purple, Tiberius 
was employed in military command, and a.d. 12 enjoyed a triumph for his 
German and Dalmatian victories. A.D. 14 Augustus held his last census, 
in which Tiberius was his colleague. He became Emperor upon the death 
of Augustas, August 19, a.d. 14. 

The early years of his reign were not unpromising. His nephew, 
Germanicus, achieved marked successes over the Germans, as our coins 
will show. Tiberius drove from Italy the whole school of magicians and 
astrologers. A notable earthquake having occured in Asia Minor, a.d. 17. 
which destroyed twelve cities, the Emperor alleviated the calamity by his 
bounty, and the restored cities vied with each other in manifestations of 

The year a.d. 21 was the fourth consulship of Tiberius. The last Ro- 
man citizen (except Emperors) to whom a triumph was granted was Junius 
Blaesus, who was permitted this honor for his African victories, a.d. 22. 

A.D. 26, Tiberius left Rome and took up his residence in Campania 
and the island of Capri (now Capreae), from which he never returned. 
Old age and debauchery had so bent his body and disfigured his face with 
ugly blotches that he was unwilling to be seen in public. A.D. 33, Galba 
(afterward Emperor) served as Consul. 

A.D. 36, Tiberius, being now seventy-eight years of ago, was attacked 
with his last disease. He appointed no successor, but, as he said, " left 
the affair to fate." March 16, a.d. 37. he had a fainting fit, from which 
partially recovering, he began to desire food, and then his attendants ex- 
pedited his end by smothering him with clothing. His reign endured 
twenty-two years six months and twenty-five days. His funeral oration 
was pronounced by Caligula, his successor, but he did not receive divine 
honors like his predecessors. 

During the reign of this prince, the death of Jesus Christ occurred, 
April 6, a.d. 33, under Pontius Pilate, procurator of JuiUea. Wo do not 
look for intimations of this upon cotemporary coins, but many centuries 
later the character and celestial glory of the Nazarene were stamped upon 
the official coins of Rome, to the number of millions. 

The appearance of Jupiter upon the coins of Tiberius is that found 
upon the monuments of other princes. The Roman oaths "by Jupiter" 
were accompanied by curious ceremonies. The man who took the oath 
held in his hand a stone, and prayed that if he willfully deceived he might 
be cast out from holy places, and tossed " as now I toss this stone." See- 
ing the name of Jupiter then npon a coin the people understood the pecu- 
liar sanctity connected with the circumstance in whose memory it was 
coined. In the treaty-oaths, the officer styled pater patralvx (or chief of 
the Fetiales who formed treaties) held the sacred flint that symbolized the 
thunder-bolt over the back of a hog, and called on Jupiter that •• if 
by public consultation or wicked fraud the Romans should break the 
treaty, in that day may Jupiter smite the Roman people as the herald 
now smote the victim, and the heavier as Jupiter was stronger than man." 
At the word he slew the swine with the flint-stone. 

There is frequent appearance of soldiers with standards, armor, etc., 
upon the coins of Tiberius. Without these the army could not have been 
conciliated. At the distant outposts, fixed for years among barbarous 
surroundings, deoarrcd from the comforts of their own civilization, it was 
inspiring when a new coinage was made, either by order of the Emperor 
in gold and silver, or of the Senate in bronze, for the troops to see that 
their services were kept in -memory at Rome. There was an exciting field 
of promotion to a Roman soldier from a common -oldier (grerjarius miles) 
to a centurion of the lowest century of the ten maniples of the haslali to 
the primipilus of the Legion. And it might well have been said of every 
soldier, as was so fong afterward averred of Napoleon's army, that "every 
man carried a Marshal's baton in his knapsack." In engravings upon 
other sheets of this series we give the arms and uniform of each class of 
Roman soldiers. 

Apollo, as he lashes forward the horses of the sun, is a pleasant coin- 
device of Tiberius. At the grand centennial of Rome, b.c. 17, a verse in 
the Carmen Saeculare of Horace, which was sung upon the occasion, was 
directed to Alme Sol, " the genial snn," whose personification is Apollo. 
In the coins of Constantine and his cotemporaries, three centuries later, 
this god appears as a youthful figure, turned to the left, nude, a pallium 
upon his left arm, a globe in his left hand, his right forefinger pointing 
stiffly to the meridian sun. Upon such coins the legend is usually SOLI 
INVICTO COMITI^'To the Sun, my indomitable ally." Examining 
such a figure upon a coin, we may imagine it thus addressing the nation 
that impressed it, — '■ Roma, Roma, te saluto! " 

This deity, Apollo, is represented as the son of Jupiter and Latona, 
twin-brother of Diana; the God of the Sun, of soothsaying, of the man- 
agement of the bow, of medicine, poetry and music. The laurel was 
sacred to him. The Ludi Apollinarii were annually celebrated in his 
honor, on the 5th of July. Many important towns were named in his 
honor, as Apollonia, in Aetolia, in Macedonia, Illyria and Cyrenaica. 
Such a favorite was this deity with the Roman people, that it gave them 
singular delight to see his attributions upon the national coins. His figure 
and personification, although commonly attended with his name, need not 
he, for all knew Apollo by his traditional face, or by one of his emblems. 
The Greeks gave him even more exquisite relief and workmanship than 
the Roman artists. Homer makes him the god of archery, prophecy and 
music, introducing him in some beautiful lines at the very opening of his 
immortal poem. His favorite animals were the hawk, the swan, the cicada, 
the dolphin, etc. He himself was represented in the perfection of manly 
strength and beauty. His long curling hair hangs loose and is bound be- 
hind with the strophium. His brows are wreathed with laurel. In his 
hands he bears the bow and lyre. In relation to oracular responses from 
the deities, the ancients had various sarcastic proverbs. One was absque 
aere mvtumesl Apollinu oraeulum. Translated somewhat freely— " Apollo 
will not talk to you unless his fee is paid." 

The appearance of Pielas upon the coins of Tiberius, as one of his 
tutelariee, suggests that the word is not alone to be translated Piety or 
Religion. It is rather a personification among the Romans of faithful at- 
tachment, love and veneration. When the people read on the coins of An- 
toninus (a.d. 137-161) PIVS, they read it— "dutifully affectionate "— that 



is, to his predecessor. At first there was in Rome but a small sanctuary 
to Pietas, but, B.c. 191, a large temple was erected. Her representation 
upon colus is usually that of a matron casting incense upon an altar. 
Sometimes the stork, a filial bird, an ancient emblem of pietas, is teen 
upon coins, and sometimes children. In some, Pietas is exhibited as a 
female offering her breast to an aged parent. 

The character of Tiberius compares with that of the Emperor Phocas, 
who reigned 600 years afterward, a most bloodthirsty tyrant; in stature 
short, beardless, red haired, having shaggy eyebrows, a great scar disfigur- 
ing his face, which became black when his passions were aroused, all the 
elements of cruelty being combined in him. 

And who shall compute the evil influences of the example of Tiberius 
upon his successors? He wrote the annals of his time, and this was the 
only book, it is said, that was perused by Domitian, 80 years later. How 
much of the intolerance and cold-blooded cruelty of the latter was due to the 
former? As Alexander owned himself modeled upon the Hector of Homer, 
so Domitian upon Tiberius. The orgies of Caligula, the murder of Nero, the 
voluptuousness of Claudius, all had their model in Tiberius. Nay, the 
inexpressibly horrible private life of Commodus and of Elagabalus, so 
long afterward, may only have been copied from that of Tiberius, when 
he forsook Rome, where there were public witnesses of his bestiality, and 
spent the closing years of his life in the seraglio, secluded from the popu- 
lar eye. It was then that he struck certain coins never found in a public 
cabinet, coins that suggest the unutterable filthiness of his nature. 

The births of Otho and Vitellius, afterward Emperors of Rome, oc- 
curred during the reign of Tiberius. 



Of twenty-one coins, gold, silver and bronze, of the Emperor Tiberius, 

from the illustrations on the fourth page. 

[The student will observe in these Readings: First, that the size of a 
Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture. Second, that each 
metal is distinguished by an abbreviation, — AV (aurum) standing for gold; 
AR (argentum) for silver; AE (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, words 
indiscriminately used in Numismatics. Third, that there are few punctua- 
tion points on coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to facili- 
tate Readings. Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms of Greek 
letters here, but substitute modern type; and, Fifth, that, these Readings 
are prepared as well for the use of Learners as experts.'] 

No. 1, AE. A medallion. To preserve the symmetry of the page, its two 
faces are separated. 

Obverse. The unlaureate head of Tiberius to the left; hair bushy; 
bust undraped; beardless. What collegians irreverently style ''the un- 
measured conk," or prominent nose of Tiberius is well displayed here. 
Inscription (abbreviated): TI CAESAR AVGVSTI F IMPERATOR V; 
(supplied) —Tiberius Caesar Augusti Filius Imperator 5 — "Tiberius 
Caesar, son of Augustus; Emperor for the 5th time." The manner of 
reading is from right to left. 

Reverse. A most beautiful temple, of which 10 columns are shown. 
The tympanum contains the letters S. P. Q. R: Senatus Populusque Ro- 
manus — " the Senate and Roman People." The roof is covered with fig- 
ures. Between the columns in front sits the image of Concord, holding in 
her right hand the Patera or sacred dish; in her left, her accustomed em- 
blem, the cornucopiae. On the right and left are the statues of Tiberius 
and his brother Drusus. An old numismatist adds, " That there might be 
an eternal memory of this temple, and of the concord of the two broth- 
ers to posterity, this medal, so rare for those times, was struck." The 
temple is that of Concord, rebuilt by Tiberius. It stood very close to 
the forum, and it was in this edifice that the Senate met at the trial of 

No. 2, AE. 

Obverse. Unlaureate head of Tiberius to the left, as in No. 1. In- 
scription (supplied): " Tiberius Caesar Augustus Imperator." Read from 
right to left. (The letter E in the cut is an error of the wood-engraver.) 

Reverse. No device. Legend (abbreviated): PONTIF MAXIM TRI- 
BVN POTEST XXIIII; (supplied) — Pontifex Maximus Tribunitia Potes- 
tate 24, "The High Priest; exercising the Tribunitian Power the 24th 
time." S. C, Senatus Consnlto— " By Decree of the Senate." This coin 
was struck a.d. 22 — thus computed: B.C. 6, Augustus endowed Tiberius 
with the Tribunitia Potestas for 5 years; then, after an interval of 4 years, 
he received it annually: Thus " Tr. P. XXIITI " brings us to a.d. 22. 

No. 3, AE. This may be studied in connection with No. 4. 

The Obverse contains the head of Tiberius, with Inscription: "Ti- 
berius Caesar, Son of the Divine Augustus; Augustus, Emperor the 7th 

Reverse. A shield, in the middle of which is the effigy of the goddess 
Clemency, with the word Clementiae ("to Clemency") for a Legend, and 

S. C, Senatus Consulto-"By Decree of the Senate." See observations 
upon No. 4. 

No. 4, AE. 

Obverse is the same as that of No. 3. 

Reverse. A shield, highly ornamented aud enriched with a laurel 
wreath. In the middle is the effigy of the goddess Moderation, with the 
word Moderationi (" to Moderation") for Legend, and S. C, Senatus Con- 
snlto— "By Decree of the Senate." Patin remarked in 1696 "that these 
coins impute praise to the clemency and moderation of this most impure 
tyrant, so far as the luxury of the age might spare external show to the 
people and adulation to the Emperors." He then goes on to explain that 
Tiberius, however cruel at heart, outwardly practiced the manners of a 
moderate and clement person. "When he received visitors at his ban- 
quets, he met them at the gate upon their entrance, and when they de- 
parted, followed them as far." The shields figured here refer to the 
golden shields which Tiberius suspended in the Capitoline, and dedicated 
to the eternal gods. 

No. 5, AR. This is the denarius usually cited in commenting upon the 
demand made by Jesus by the words, " Show me a penny" {Luke xx, 24). 

Obverse. The laureate head of Tiberius to the right. Beardless; 
bust undraped. Inscription (abbreviated): TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F 
AVGVSTVS-, (supplied) — Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti Filius Augustus 
—■Tiberius Caesar Augustus; eon of the deified Augustus." 

Reverse. A female figure seated upon a square seat, to the right; the 
right hand supported by a spear, the left holding out an olive branch. 
Legend (supplied): Pontifex Maximus— "The High Priest." 

No. 6, AE. 

Reverse. The figure of the goddess Vesta seated on an ornamented 
chair, to the right. Her right hand holds the Patera; her left is supported 
by the Ha9ta Pura. Her drapery comes neatly to her feet. Inscription 
DD PP: (supplied)— Caio Vibio Marso Proconsule; Druso Caesare Quaes- 
tore Provinciae; Titus Caecilius Rufus Fieri Curavit; Decuriones Posu- 
erunt — "Caius Vibius Mareus being Proconsul; Drusus Caesar being 
Questor of the Province; Titus Caecilius Rufus caused (this coin) to be 
struck; the Senators (of Utica) gave the orders." 

Nos. 6 and 7 were struck at Utica, in Africa, famous for the death of 
Cato. The city was greatly favored by Julius Caesar, Augustus and Ti- 
berius, and struck many coins in honor of the latter. 

No. 7, AE. 

Reverse. Figure of the goddess "Vesta, as in No. 6, with slight varia- 
tions in the supports of the chair. Inscription (abbreviated): C VIBIO 
Caio Vibio Marso Proconsule 3; Caius Sallus Rusius Fieri Curavit; Muni- 
cipes Municipii Julii Uticenses — " Caius Vibius Marsus being Proconsul 
in the 3d year; Caius Sallus Rusius caused this coin to be struck; the 
citizens of the free Julian city of Utica (approved)." 

No. 8, AE. 

Obverse. Unlaureate and beardless head of Tiberius to the left. Be- 
hind the neck a branch of laurel ; in front, an eagle. Inscription (supplied) 
— "Augustns Tiberius Caesar." 

Reverse. The head of Apollo to the right, with the Lyre in front. 
Legend : Characters in unknown script. 

In other coins of Tiberius we find that prince arrayed in the habit of 
Apollo, with the Lyre. " For he conceived himself to be a son of Apollo," 
says Suetonius, and many inscriptions are addressed to him by the name 
of that deity. 

No. 9, AE. 

The Reverse is a restored coin by Titus, who duplicated so many of 
the coins of Augustus and other princes. 

Obverse. The figure of Justice, with the word IVSTITIA. As in pre- 
ceding coins, we learn that Tiberius affected all the best virtues, though 
practicing them so little. Patin says: "The most unmerciful (inclemen- 
tissimus), immoderate (immoderatissimus) and unjust (injustissimus) man 
in all the period of his rule made vows to clemency, moderation and jus- 
tice ! " The force of the Latin tongue could go no farther than this. 

No. 10, AV. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Tiberius to the right. Inscription as on 
the Obverse of No. 4. 

Reverse. Laureate head of Augustus Caesar to the left. Legend 
(abbreviated): DIVOS AVGVST DIVI F; (supplied)— Divos Augustus 
Divi Filius—" The deified Augustus, son of the Deified." Augustus was 
called Divus (divos) after he had been consecrated, and flamens appointed 
to him. As Julius Caesar had received the same honor in his lifetime 
Augustus styled himself, " Son of the Deified," in which, as we see, Ti- 
berius imitated him. For he struck coins in honor of the father who had 
adopted him, and so conciliated the people to him. It is due to the char- 
acter of Tiberius to say that he did not assume the name of Augustns, 
but suffered it to be ascribed to him, as we read upon this elegant aureus,' 
or gold coin. 



No. 11, AE. 

The Obverse ha9 the head of Tiberius, with Inscription: "Tiberius 
Caesar Augustus, son of the deified Augustus." 

Reverse. The figure of a camp. Legend (supplied;: Colonia Augusta 
Emerita— " The Colony of Emerita Augusta." 

Another coin of this colony is figured in No. 13 of the series of Augustus. 
The colony was named from the worthy character of the veteran soldiers 
to whom Augustus granted the territory when he dissolved so many 
legions at the close of the civil wars, and douated valuable lands and 
possessions to them. 
No. 12, AE. 

The Obverse has the laureate head of Tiberius, with the inscrip- 
tion as No. 11. 

Reverse. A horseman, lance in right hand, galloping swiftly to the 
right. Inscription, OSOA. 

V V is for VRBS VICTA— "The Victorious City." Caesar, in his 
Civil War, speaks in laudatory terms of the bravery of the people of Osca. 
Silver mines were here, described by Livy. It is now a town in Arragon, 
styled Huesca. 
No. 13, AE. 

Obverse. Dnlaureate head of Tiberius to the left. Portrait but little 
resembles the preceding, being a failure in the artist. Inscription: 
" Tiberius Caesar Augustus, Emperor, son of the deified Augustus." 

Reverse. The temple erected by the people of Ratisbona. Legend: 
AETERNITATI AVGVSTAE— "To the eternity of the Augusta" (or 
Empress); but why Augustae instead of Augusti we cannot explain. It 
may be a blunder of the artist, whose work in the portrait is so inferior. 
This place is now Regensburg, Germany. 
No. 14, AE. 

The Obverse has the head of Tiberius and an inscription like the last. 

Reverse. A temple of five columns, erected in honor of Augustus, 

having a facade and corners of roof moderately ornamented. The letters 

ABDERA are symmetrically disposed. This place is now Adra, in Spain. 

No. 15, AE. 

The Obverse has the head of Tiberius, with inscription like the last 
Reverse. A ship to the right, with seven oars visible; prow armed 
with trident; helmsman at his post; Vexillum at the prow. Inscription 
(abbreviated): SAG L SEMP GEMINO L VAL SVRA II VIR— " Sagnn- 
tum Lucio Sempronio Geniino, Lucio Valerio Sura Duum-viris," Segun- 
tum: Lucius Sempronius Geminus and Lucius Valerius Sura, being the 
mint masters. 

Saguntnm, like many other Spanish cities, offered its municipal em- 
blem to conciliate the favor of the Emperor Tiberius. The place had 
been taken and destroyed by Hannibal, after a siege that produced a fam- 
ine so severe as to make the adage " A Saguntine famine " proverbial. 
The ship is that by which the colonists were brought here from the island 

No. 16, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

The Obverse has the head of Tiberius, with inscription in Greek: 
"Tiberius Caesar Augustus." 

Reverse. Head of Livia, mother of Tiberius, to the right. Hair elab- 
orately and elegantly dressed; profile beautiful. Legend: EAE22AIQN 
2EBA2TH— '■ Augusta of the Edessans." The people of Edessa, at the 
Euphrates, considered that they could not please Tiberius better than to 
honor his mother, Livia, in this manner. In Nos. 23 and 24 of the series 
of Augustus we have portraits of the same lady. 
No. 17, AE. 

The Reverse has the words "Pontiff; Tribunitian Power the second 
time; by decree of the Senate." 

Obverse. The head of Drusus, brother of Tiberius, to the right. 
Inscription (abbreviated): DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG P DIVI AVG N; 
(supplied) — Drusus Caesar Tiberii Augusti Filius; Divi Augusti Nepos — 
'•Drusus Caesar, son of Tiberius Augustus; nephew of the deified Augus- 

Drusus, junior, the only son of Tiberius, and therefore heir to the 
throne, was born b.c 13, and elected Consul a.d. 14, the year of his 
father's accession. A.D. 22 he received the Tribunitian power, but died 
by poison a.d. 23, administered by his wife, Livilla. He was a person of 
most depraved character, like the majority of those who composed the 
court of Tiberius. 

No. 18, AE. A Triumphal Coin in honor of Germanicus, nephew and 
adopted son of Tiberius. 

Obverse. Germanicus riding bareheaded to the right, in a quadriga 
triumphal chariot, elegantly ornamented. In his left hand be bears a 
legionary eagle upon a spear Above him is the inscription " GermanicuB 

Reverse. Germanicus in full armor standing to the left; his feet 
crossed; his right hand raised, as if detailing to the Senate the events of 
his campaigns. In his left band is a legionary eagle. Legend (abbrevi- 
ated): SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM S C; (supplied) -Signis 

Receptis Devictis Germanis Seuatus Consulto— " The Standards being 
recovered; the Germans being subdued; by Decree of the Senate." 

The history of this coin is one of extraordinary interest, and will repay 
a critical reference to the history of the period. 
No. 19, AE. 

Obverse. The head of Antonia to the right. Dressing of the hair 
modest and attractive; neck draped. Inscription: "Antonia Augusta." 

Reverse. The Emperor standing in the pontifical habit, holding in 
his right hand the simpulum. Legend (abbreviated): TI CLAVDIVS 
CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP; (supplied) — Tiberius Claudius Caesar 
Augustus Pontifex Maximus Tribunitia Potestate Imperator— "High 
Priest, exercising the Tribunitian Power; Emperor." S. C, Senatus 
Consulto — "By Decree of the Senate." 

This Antonia, the daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of 
Augustus, was the wife of Germanicus Drusus, brother of Tiberius. She 
was born about B.C. 36. Her three children were Germanicus Caesar, 
described in the preceding coin; Livilla. alluded to in coin No. 17 of this 
series, and Claudius, afterward Emperor. She was celebrated for her 
beauty, virtue and chastity. 
No. 20, AE. 

Reverse. The heads of Nero and Drusus, facing each other. Legend 
(partly obliterated): " Nero and Drusus." 

The three sons of the elder Drusus, brother of Tiberius, viz. Nero, 
Drusus and Caius, were in the line of inheritance upon the death of his 
own children; but their fate was a harsh one. Nero, the eldest, was 
exiled by his uncle, and starved lo death, a.d. 29; Drusus, the second, after 
a glorious career at the head of the Roman armies, was poisoned; Caius 
(called Caligula), after a perverted youth, became the vilest Emperor that 
had ever ruled, and his short reign was closed by assassination. This coin 
was struck in some Spanish mint, place not identified. 

No. 21, AE. A Greek Imperial, struck at Miletus, near Ephesus, in 
honor of Agrippina, granddaughter of Augustus. 

Obverse. The head of Agrippina to the right. She was the wife of 
Germanicus, named in No. 18. and mother of Caius (Caligula), afterward 
Emperor. Dressing of the hair elaborate; neck modestly draped. In- 
scription (partly obliterated): MIAASIBN — '• Of the Miletans." 

Reverse. The laureate head of Caius (Caligula) to the right. In front 
of the long craned neck an eight-point star. Legend: FAI02 KAI2AP 
TEPMANIK02 2ABA2T02 — " Caius Caesar Germanicus Augustus." 

This coin more properly belongs to the series of Caligula, as it testifies 
to the benefits received from him by the Miletans. 

In commenting upon Coin No. 18 of this series, we alluded to that 
most interesting passage of history, the disastrous defeat of Varus by the 
Germans, a.d. 9. This general, formerly pro-consul of Syria, moved in 
the summer of that year to the river Weser, near where it is joined by the 
Werra. His army consisted of three Roman legions, with their regular 
number of auxiliaries and a strong body of cavalry. By the most dastardly 
treachery he was drawn from his camps by Herrmann, Arminius and the 
other German chiefs, professedly Roman allies, and attacked in a woody 
pass by an immense army of Germans. The first day's fight was inde- 
cisive; but in the two following days, surrounded by immense hosts of 
savages, impeded by heavy rains and worn down by incessant combat, the 
Roman army was destroyed. Three eagles were captured. Varus com- 
mitted suicide. All the Roman possessions between the Weser and the 
Rhine were abandoned to the enemy. 

Thus far all historians agree. The disaster sent dismay throughout the 
Empire. The Emperor Augustus, who was both weak and aged, gave way 
to the most violent grief. He tore his garments and cried aloud day and 
night. ■■ Varus, give me back my legions! " 

But " the great victory "as German historians delight to call it. was 
ephemeral. It was ever the custom of Rome to vise stronger from defeat. 
A.D. 11, Tiberius set out with an army of recovery and revenge, taking with 
him his nephew, Germanicus Caesar, then twenty-four years of age. A.D. 
13 Germanicus was placed in command with eight legions. His progress 
into the German provinces, though slow, was sure. He captured the wife 
of Arminius and her father. At the scene of Varus' disaster he gathered 
up and buried the remains of that betrayed band. A.D. 16 he gave the 
savages a thorough defeat on the plain of Idistavisus. and Arminius 
escaped only in disguise. A second victory followed soon after. Armin- 
ius was then put to death by his own relatives, as a usurper of sovereign 
power. The lost eagles of Varus were recovered, and in honor of the abso- 
lute reconqtiest of Germany, our Coin No. 18 was struck. 

This coin, then, is a monument of certain truths upon which historians 
are divided. Cressy, in his " Fifteen Decisive Battles," includes the de- 
struction of Varus as one. Other authorities, accepting the traditions of 
savage tribes for history, have elevated Arminius to the highest rank of 
patriotism and valor. 

On the other hand, we exhibit cotemporary coins, veritable " Leaflets 
of History," stamped by the most cultivated nation of the age, declaring 
that " the Germaus were conquered and the standards recovered! " 


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JlmgriQg/rt As&QQigtUQm Q>£ $WB]!i8I&3itl8t&« 


[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome from 
B.C. 47 to a.d. 96, Caligula, a.d. 37-11. was the fourth. The three who 
preceded him under this title were Julius Caesar, e.g. 47-44; Augustus, 
b.c. 31-a.d. 14, and Tibekius, 14-37. The eight who succeeded him, Clau- 
dius, 41-54; Nero, 54-68; Galea, 68-69; Otho, 69; Vitellius. 09: Ves- 
pasian, 69-79; Titus, 79-81, and Domitian, 81-96.] 

Cains Caesar Augustus Germanicus (commonly styled Caligula), fourth 
of the Caesars, Emperor of Rome, a.d. 37 to 41, was born at Antium. ten 
miles south of Rome, August 31, a.d. 12. The reigning Emperor was 
Augustus. Caligula was the youngest son of Germanicus Caesar, nephew 
of the Emperor Tiberius, the same who restored the prestige of Rome lost 
iu the destruction of Varus and his three legions by the Germans, a.d. 9. 
His mother, Agrippina, granddaughter of Augustus Caesar, was oue 
of the victims of the cruelty of the Emperor Tiberius. Nero, after- 
ward Emperor, was the son of the second Agrippina, sister of Caligula, 
and the Emperor Claudius was her father's brother. The nickname (rumieu 
joculare) of Caligula (which he himself always refused to bear, deeming it 
an insult) is derived from caliga, the form of boot, heavy and studded 
with nails, worn by common soldiers. A private soldier was termed, 
from this object, miles caligidalvs. The word is allied to calceus, from 
calx, the heel; and by metonymy, caliga represents military service. 

The Emperor Caligula, born under sound of trumpet, spent his early 
years in the camps with his father. He became the idol of the sol- 
diers. At the age of sixteen, upon the death of his mother, he took up 
his abode with his great-grandmother, Livia Augusta, the wife of the 
Emperor Augustus, and at her death delivered her funeral oration from 
the Rostra, wearing the praetexta. From this he removed to the dwelling 
of his grandmother, Antonia, the wife of Drusus, brother of Tiberius, 
where he remained until his twentieth year (a.d. 32), when the Emperor 
Tiberius summoned him to Misenum, in Campania, the place of the royal 

A resident at the voluptuous court of Tiberius, Caligula concealed his 
indignation at the treatment his family had received from that monarch, 
and so saved his own life; but his savage and voluptuous character was 
understood by the Emperor. He married (a.d. 35) Junia Claudilla (Clau- 
dia), who lived but a year after. Soon after her death he obtained the 
questorship, and then the augurate. having been created pontifex maximus 
two years before. 

The death of Tiberius, which occurred at Misenum, March, a.d. 37, in 
the manner of an assassination, has been charged upon Caligula, who, in 
fact, boasted that he administered poison to the old voluptuary with his 
own hands. Yet he attended the funeral in the dress of a mourner, hair 
and beard unshaved and untrimmed, clothed in black, all ornaments being 
laid aside. 

It was not altogether the purpose of Tiberius that Caligula should be 
his successor. In his will he had appointed Tiberius Gemellus, his grand- 
son, to be co-heir with Caligula; but the Senate and the people gave the 
sovereign power to Caligula alone in honor of his father, Grrmanicu6, 
who had been the idol of the nation, and he set out upon his brief career 
as ruler without an opponent. 

At first he seems to have tried to perform a worthy part. He paid to 
the people and the soldiers the legacies left them by the late Emperor, 
pardoned all who had joined in the oppressions endured by his family, 
and publicly burnt the condemnatory papers. He released from prison 
and from exile all political prisoners, and restored to the magistrates that 
full power of jurisdiction of which they had been deprived. To foreign 
princes, stripped of their patrimony by his predecessor, he behaved with 
generosity. Among these, Agrippa, grandson of Herod the Great, of 
Judea, who had been put in chains by Tiberius, was pardoned and his 
kingdom restored to him. 

July 1, a.d. 37, Caligula, in conjunction with his uncle Claudius, after- 
ward Emperor, entered upon his first Consulate. Soon after this he was 
seized with a serious illness, in consequence of his irregular mode of liv- 
ing, and from that time became an altered man. All that was good in him 
evaporated. The justice and moderation evinced during the first months 
of his reign disappeared. From that time he acted more like a diabolical 
monster than a human being. His conduct was that of a madman. Per- 
haps his illness destroyed his mental balance and thus let loose all the 
veiled passions of his soul. 

The hand of the executioner fell heavily upon the ancient families of 

Rome. Only the obscure were safe. He put to death Tiberius Gemellus, 
whom he had formerly made Princeps Juventutis. He compelled many of 
his relatives, amongst them his grandmother, Antonia, and his wife, 
Ennia Naevia, to commit suicide, lie was ever haunted by the black 
spectres of gloom and ennui. At the circus, when the number of criminals 
failed for the bloody sports, he seized upon bystanders, ordered their 
tongues cut out, and made them substitutes in the horrid games. At his 
meals he ordered men tortured to death before his eyes as zest to his flag- 
ging appetite. Once, during a horse-race, when he found the people more 
humane than himself, he expressed the wish that " all men had but one 
neck, and he would decollate the race at a blow." Cursed with the 
grossest sensuality, he had a keen enjoyment of low and profligate society. 
Ilis favorite pleasure was sensual excitement. Mystery, intrigue and sus- 
picion hung over his court, and to all time his memory dwells in 6uch 
contempt as well as detestation that few can even recollect his real name 
(Caius Caesar), but call him " Caligula," as one would say "the Tom, Dick 
and Harry of Roman Emperors." 

In his madness Caligula conceived himBelf to be a god. He appeared 
publicly as Bucchus, Apollo, Jupiter, Diana and others, representing either 
sex, as the fancy moved him. He would stand in the temple of Castor and 
Pollux, between the statues of those divinities, and require the people to 
worship him in their stead. He even built a temple to himself under the 
name of Jupiter Latiaris ("the Jove of the Latins"), and erected his 
statue of gold as presiding god there. He even raised his horse Incitatus 
to the consulship as his own colleague! In reading these coius we may 
recall this wretched story to mind. 

A.D. 40, Caligula led his army into Gaul, and to the shore opposite 
Britain. But four months alter his return (viz. January 24, 41) he was 
murdered at the theatre, together with hi6 wife and child. It may be said 
of him, as of many subsequent tyrants, "he had shed with impunity the 
noblest blood of Rome; he perished as 60on as he was dreaded by his own 

After his death the Senate, changing the fear under which they had 
cowered before him into wrath, solemnly execrated his memory. His 
statues were ordered to be thrown down, inscriptions erased, coins 
gathered in and melted! This same "act of oblivion" was performed 
nearly fifty years afterward to the dishonor of Domitian, and, so far as 
statues and inscriptions are concerned, with success. Not bo with coins! 
They had been distributed through too many hands, by too many methods, 
to be gathered up again. Millions upon millions of them were scattered 
from one confine of the great Empire to another, and the Senate may as 
well have ordered the dust gathered that had been blown from the seven 
hills of Rome, as to recover the dispersed coinage of this infamous ruler 
that had passed from under the hammer in their great mint in the temple 
of Juuo Moneta. 

The abundance of ancient coins is an appropriate subject here. They 
bring back the life of buried populations because they were struck so 
numerously and distributed so systematically. With them all the products 
of the earth were purchased which made Rome the emporium of the 
earth. They were placed under termini, the boundaries of towns, fields 
and roads, as to-day the United States surveyors place handfuls of char- 
coal under the termini which tliey set up. Coins were placed between the 
lips of the departed to serve him for ferriage as he passed the dark river 
(Styx), and if we compute the number thus interred in a thousand years 
we can form some estimate of how many remained iu circulation. The 
engineers hid them in the angles of their camps as we to-day place them 
under corner-stones of public edifices. From the coins of Janus, some of 
which weighed 4.000 grains, down to minute bits of bronze, they were thus 
committed to the guardianship of mother earth. So the life of a Roman 
Emperor, good or bad, honored or disgraced, impressed upon imperishable 
metal, and thus disseminated, could never be consigned to oblivion. 

The subject is not exhausted. The plow-share, the engineer's spade, 
the upheavals of earthquakes, the gulleying out of hillsides by rains, the 
drying up and drainage of marshes, the cleansing of old pools and spring 
heads, the breaking up of ancient wrecks upon rocky coasts, excavations 
for foundations in all Roman cities, dredging of rivers; these and other 
processes, natural and human, have brought to light, are bringing to light, 
will yet bring to light, immense numbers of the coinage of Rome struck 
during its twenty centuries of existence. Here is a list of "finds" 
recorded within a few years: 

Near Rheims, Prance, 1829, 2,000 Roman coins in a Roman vase, of 
which 1.500 in billon of Postunius. Another collection near by had 4,000, 
all email bronze except one. 

On the Jersey Coast, England, a d. 1630, 982 Roman coins. 

In 1836, 700 Roman coins discovered in a vase at Lawal, on the Marne 
in France. These were all denarii, in fine preservation. They were of 
Tiberius, 200; Augustus, 165, etc. 

At Exeter, England, in some parts of the city, a person can scarcely dig 
a cellar without seeing half a dozen coin portraits staring him in the face. 
One hundred aud eighty-two came out together, representing Claudius, 
Nero and Vespasian. In October. 1876, 55,000 near Verona, Italy, etc. 
These genuine materials of numismatic study lie so thickly under Lon- 
don that the excavations of the underground railway there, a few years 
since, brought to light thousands of them. 

Near Chimay, France, a "find" some thirty years since contained 
26,000 Roman coins, in bronze and billon. These ran from Valerian to 
Aureliau. Of Gallienus there were 2,200. in eighty-three varieties; of 
Tetricus, father and son, 18,500, in twenty-two varieties. 

August 10, 1836, there were found, in a bronze basket, near Thorn- 
grafton, eleven miles from Hexham, England, three gold and sixty silver 
Roman pieces. The reverses were all different. They ran from Claudius 
to Hadrian. October 2, 1836, a " find" near Maidenhead, England, filling 
two rude vases, contained between 400 and 500 Roman coins, from Otho 
to Antoninus Pius. About the same time there were found near Rush 
Green, Lewisham, England, two earthen pots with 420 aurei (gold coins). 
In 1839, at Stroud, in Kent, several hundred Roman coins from Antoninus 
to Gratianus. In excavating for the Great Western Railway, England, 
some 250 denarii came to light, of Valens, Gratianus and Magnus Maxi- 

A boy in England, stooping for a stone, picked up an aureus of Trajan. 
The Obverse, a laureate head of that emperor; Reverse, a genius bestowing 
gifts upon two children. In the exergue were the letters ALIM ITAL. 
The legend was: COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI. Near Graves- 
end, England, 552 Saxon coins were discovered, of the period ad. 814, 
mostly fresh and sharp, as if just fallen from the mint. There was one of 
Alfred in the heap. 

In 1838, at Swansea, Englaud, 166 coins, English and Scotch snver, 
were found in a vase. Near Loughborough, Leicestershire, England, in an 
urn, were found nearly 2,000 Roman small bronze — eighty-four of Philip, 
and from that to Probus. 

This list might be extended to many pages. It is chiefly valuable as 
proving the richness of the upper alluvial of Europe, Asia and Africa in 
these metallic monuments of Roman history. 



Of seventeen coins, gold, silver and bronze, of the Emperor Caligula, 

from the illustrations on the fourth page. 

[The student will observe in these Readings: First, that the size of a 
Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture. Second, that the 
metal is distinguished by an abbreviation, — AV (aurum) standing for gold, 
AR (aiyeitii/m) lor silver, AE (aen) for copper, bronze or brass, words in- 
discriminately used in Numismatics. Third, that there are few punctua- 
tion points on Coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to facili- 
tate Readings. Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms of Greek 
letters here, but substitute modern type; and Fifth, that these Readings 
are prepared as well for the use of Learners as experts.] 

No. 1, AE. 

Obverse. The laureate head of Caligula to the left; beardless; bust 
undraped. Inscription (abbreviated): C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS 
PON M TR POT; (supplied)— Caius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Pou- 
tifex MaxiinuB Tribunitia Potestate,— " Caius Caesar Augustus Germani- 
cus; High Priest; exercising the Tribunitiau Power." 

Reverse. A group of the three sisters of Caligula,— Agrippina, Dru- 
silla and Julia,— in the characters of Piety, Constancy and Good Fortune. 
The one to the left represents Fortune; her right arm is supported by a 
short column, aud thus supports the cornncopiae. The central figure, 
as Piety, holds the sacred patera in her right hand, and on her left arm the 
cornncopiae. Julia, representing Fortune, holds a rudder in her right 
band; on her left arm, the cornucopiae. The history of these three vile 
women, their horrible commerce with their own brother, and their de- 
served fate, is too shocking for our pages. What sneers of scorn these 
coins excited as they passed from hand to hand throughout the great 
Empire one may easily conceive. S. C. is read Senatus Consulto,— " By 
Decree of the Senate." 

No. 2, AE. A medallion struck at Caesarea Augusta. 

Obyerse. Laureate head of Caligula to the left. The pose of the 

prince is arrogant and superb. Beardless; bust not draped. Inscrip- 
tion (abbreviated): C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS IMP; i6 upplied)- 
Caius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Imperator. 

Reverse. Three standards, upright and parallel. The central one is 
the legionary eagle, usually made of silver. The others are the standards 
of the maniples, or company flags, viz., a human hand, fingers erect, palm 
outward. Legend: LICINIANO ET GERMANO II VIE,-" The mint- 
masters, Licinianus and Germanus;" C. C. A., Colonia Caesarea Augusta. 
See coin No. 1, series of Augustus, for this. The two men named were 
chiefs of the mint at that place. The custom of inserting the names of 
mint-masters in coin legends, so common with Julius Caesar, disappears 
a little later on. 

No. 3, AE. 

The Obverse has the head of Caligula, with Inscription: "Caius 
Caesar Augustus Germanicus; Emperor; High Priest; exercising Tribuni- 
tiau Power; Consul."' 

Reverse. The head of Salus, deity of Health (Prosperity, Salutation), 
represented as a female, to the right; hair dressed; bust draped. Legend 
(abbreviated): CN ATEL FLAC CN POM FLAC II VIR (F) C, SAL 
AVG; (supplied)— Cneus Atellins Flaccus (et) Cneus Pomponius Duum- 
viri Fieri Curaverunt Salutis Augusti.— " The mint-masters, Cneus Atellius 
Flaccus and Cneus Pomponius, caused (this coin) to be struck to the 
health of Augustus." We are not informed of what city these men were 
the moneyers. 

No. 4, AE. 

Reverse. There is no type. Inscription: LICINIANO ET GER- 
MANO II VIR C. C. A.— "The Colony Caesarea Augusta; Licinianus 
and Germanus being the mint-masters." 

No. 5, AE. 

Reverse. A colonist driving a yoke of oxen and plow, to the right. 
His right hand holds the diminutive plow in use to this day in oriental 
countries; his left flourishes a whip. The condition of the cattle bespeaks 
good pasturage and care. Legend the same as No. 4, save that the letters 
C. C. A. are omitted. 

No. 6, AE. 

Reversb. Nero and Drusus. nephews of Tiberius, on horseback, gal- 
loping to the right. Their cloaks and the tails of their horses indicate 
speed. The attitude of the horses is fine. Legend: Nero et Drusus 
Caesares— "The Caesars Nero and Drusus." It is probable there are other 
words which are lost in this specimen. 

In looking at these figures the reader will bear in mind that both met 
with premature death at the hand of Tiberius, their imperial uncle. 

No. 7, AE. 

Obverse. Unlaureate head of Caligula to the left; beardless; bust un- 
draped. Inscription (abbreviated): C. Caesar Aug Germanicus Pou M 
Tr Pot; (supplied) — Caius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Pontifex Maxi- 
mus Tribunitia Potestate— " The High Priest; exercising the Tribunitian 

The nickname of Caligula is never found upon coins; it would have 
been as much as a moneyer's life was worth to stamp upon the metal a 
name so distasteful to the Emperor. 

No. 8, AE. 

The Obverse has the head of Caligula, with the same inscription as 
that of No. 7. 

Reverse. The three daughters of Germanicus by Agrippina, ?iz., 
Agrippina the Second, Drusilla and Julia. These sisters of the Emperor 
Caligula form a strange group upon this coin, as on the Reverse of No. 1, 
where a brief account of them is given. 

No. 9, AE. 

The Obverse has the head of Caligula, with the usual inscription. 

Reverse. An elegant laurel wreath inclosing the letters II Vir. In- 
scription (abbreviated): MV AVG BILBIL C CORN REFEC M IIELV 
FRONT II VIR; (supplied) — Municipium Augusta Bilbilis Caio Corne- 
lio Refecto (et) Marco Helvio Frontone Duum-viris — "The Free-city Au- 
gusta Bilbilis; Caius Cornelius Refectus and Marcus Helvius Fronto 
being mint-masters. 

The free city of Bilbilis, in Tarracon, Spain, struck numerous coins in 
honor of the Emperors, who successively favored them. 
No. 10, AE. A Greek Imperial 

The Obverse has the head of Caligula with the usual inscription. See 
No. 21 of the series of Tiberius. 

Reverse. The god of music, Apollo, as a player upon the lyre. The 
deity is nude; head bound with laurel. The pose is graceful; the anat- 
omy of the figure worthy of study. Legend: A1AYMEY2 MIAH2IQN" — 
" Apollo of the Miletans." Didymus (or " the twin " ) was a cognomen of 
Apollo. Because the sun illuminates the moon, or because he was born at 
one birth with Diana, therefore the Greeks termed them Didymi (twins), 
as they did Jupiter and Apollo. Suetonius says that in honor of this. Ca- 
ligula determined to complete the Temple of the Twin, at Miletus, which 
had fallen through age. 



No. 11, AE. 

The Obverse has the head of Caligula, with the usual inscription. 
Reverse. The laureate head of Germnnicus, father of Caligula, to the 
right. Legend (abbreviated): GERM CAESAR PVLCHRO III VARIO 
II VIR— " Gcrmanicus Caesar; Pulcher being triumvir and Varius the 

It is doubtful from what city this coin emanated. This Pulcher was a 
member of the great Claudia Gens, of which there are numerous coins 
extant; Varius was also the name of a Gens (ancient cluu) of whom 
we have coins struck at Osca, Spain. 
No. 12, AE. 

The Obverse 16 the same as No. 11 

Reverse. This is a duplicate of No. 11, save that Dosscnus takes the 
place of Varius in the Legend. But we cannot indicate the name of the 

No. 13, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Caligula to the right. Inscription (sup- 
plied): Caius Caesar Augustus Germanicus — " The High Priest; exercis- 
ing Tribunitian Power." 

Reverse. Radiate head of the Emperor Augustus (deceased a.d. 14) 
to the right. Legend: Divus Augustus, Pater Patriae — "The deified Au- 
gustus; the Father of the Country." 

This beautiful denarius deserves more than ordinary study. We bor- 
row the cut from Smith's "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography 
and Mythology," voce Caligula. 

No. 14, AE. A Greek Imperial, 6truck at Cos, and much damaged by 

Reverse. The serpent, sacred to the people of Cos. He lies in volu- 
minous folds, with head erect, as in the act of striking. The position 
is natural, and proves the artist. The Legend is much obliterated: KQIQX 
--'■ Of the people of Cos." 
No. 15, AE. 

Reverse. Pegasus to the left, a most artistic personification. The 
Legend is much obliterated: COR is for Corinth. See Nos. 7 and 8 of the 
series of Julius Caesar. The names of the moneyers are abraded,- - LO II 
VIR alone remaining. 

No. 16, AE. A Greek Imperial, struck at Ilion, in Asia Minor. 
Obverse. The unlaureate heads of Augustus and Caligula, facing each 
other. Each bust rests upon a cippus. Inscription: TAI02 KAI2AF 
®E02 AYTOKPATfiP 5EBA2T0I — " Caius Caesar; the deified Emperor; 
the Augustuses." 

Reverse. The goddess Pallas (Minerva) standing to the front, be- 
tween the personifications of Rome and the Senate, facing each other. 
The head of Rome is turreted. Legend: ®EA POMH IEPA 2YNKAHT02 
— "Goddess Rome; Holy Senate." IYI is for Iliensium— " Of the people 
of Troy." 

This coin, in auggestivenesB of locality, goddess, etc., is exceedingly 

No. 17, AV. 

Obverse. A very beautiful gold coin (aureus). The laureate head of 
Caligula to the right; beardless; bust undraped. Inscription (abbrevi- 
Caesar Augustus, High Priest; exercising Tribunitian Power the third 
time; Consul the third time. 

Reverse. The civic wreath of oak leaves and acorns presented to a 
person who had saved the life of a Roman citizen. The wreath incloses 
the Legend, S P Q R P P OB CS — Senatus Populusque Romanus Patri 
Patriae- ob Cives Servatos — " The Senate and Roman People to the 
Father of the Country for Saving Citizens." 

Besides the seventeen coins figured and described, we present readings 
of a number of denarii and aurei, many of them extremely beautiful 
and rare. All of this sort of coinage was stamped by special order of the 
Emperor., and not of the Senate, and therefore represents self-praise. It 
was the " Imperial money," as the bronze coinage, made under special 
decrees of the Senate, was the "people's money." This is to be kept in 
mind by the coin-student. Whatever compliments to a prince or his family 
we see upon gold or silver coins were put there by command of l/ie Emperor 
himself, while that which we find upon bronze money was commanded 
by the Senate. 

One of these coins exhibits the civic crown with the lettering S P Q R 
P P OB CIVES SERVATOS — Senatus Populusque Romanus Patri 
Patriae ob Cives Servatos — "The Senate and Roman People to the 
Father of the Country for Saving the Lives of Citizens." See our No. 
17. The allusion is to the recall of certain exiles and other acts of clem- 
ency performed by Caligula at the commencement of his reign. 

We have an Allocution coin of Caligula in bronze which is interesting. 
The Emperor stands to the left in a suggestum; behind him is a curule 
chair. His right hand is raised to address five soldiers who bear four 
legionary eagles. This represents his harangue to the Praetorian and 
other forces at his accession. 

A bronze coin of Caligula is extant with veiled female figure to the left, 
representing Vesta, seated on a square, high-backed seat, ornamented in 
every part. In her right hand is a patera; in her left, the hasta pura. S C, 
for Senatus Consulto, is seen, viz. " By Decree of the Senate," in the field. 

A coin of Pietas, struck to Caligula, is much like this. In the Obverse 
is a figure veiled; the right hand holding the patera, the left elbow 
resting upon the head of a robed female (small) standing on a base at the 
side of the chair, with one hand on th^ bosom, the other at the side. This 
statue is designed as an ornamental support for the left arm, but does not 
appear to be a part of the chair. The word PIETAS is in the Exergue. 
Upon the Reverse is a fine square temple of 6ix columns (hexastyle), dec- 
orated with garland:) suspended among the columns. The pediment and 
tympanum are much ornamented with statues. In front of the temple is 
an altar, at which the Emperor, dressed in pontifical robes, is standing. 
In his right, hand is a patera to catch the blood from an ox held for sacri- 
fice by the victimarius. There is an attendant behind the Emperor. 
(Imagine Caligula as a Priest!) The Legend is DIVO AVG — Divo Augus- 
to— "To the deified Augustus,"— referring to the temple erected in honor 
of Augustus. This temple, a century later, was repaired by Antoninus 
Pius, and a coin struck, with the Legend, " The Temple of the deified 
Augustus restored." 

A coin found in both metals has the head of Agrippina, and commem- 
orates the filial conduct of Caligula, who. upon his accession, repaired to 
the island of Pandataria, and collected in an urn the remains of his 
mother. Agrippina, who, banished by Tiberius, had died of starvation four 
years before. Bringing these to Rome, he established, in her memory, 
Circensian games. Her remains, borne in a carpentum, were carried 
with pomp, and her reputation restored by coins. The Legend is: Agrip- 
pina Mater Caii Caesaris Augusti Germanici —"Agrippina, the mother of 
Caius Caesar Augustus Germanicus." 

There is a gold coin presenting his sister Agrippina crowned with a 
diadem, and his sister Julia. See No. 1 of this series. 

A gold coin struck by Caligula in honor of Augustus, the second Em- 
peror, has the radiated head of Augustus and the Legend (Anglice), "The 
deified Augustus, Father of the Country." Caligula took special pains to. 
honor his ancestor Augustus, omitting, as far as possible, the memory of 
Tiberius, who had destroyed the dearest members of his family — father, 
mother, etc.— in his jealous cruelty. The coin last named was struck on 
the occasion of his dedicating the temple begun by Tiberius. At the cele- 
bration he rode dressed in a triumphal habit, with immense display. 

Coins were struck by Caligula in honor both of his father and grand- 
father. Few princes, in fact, gave so much attention to printing genealogy 
upon imperishable metal. The memory of these two was particularly 
dear to the people, and at first they honored Caligula for the sake of the 

Coins were struck with the sympulum and lituus, emblems of the 
Augurate. The Legend is IMPERATOR PONT MAX.AVG TR POT — 
" The Emperor, High Priest, Augur, holding the Tribunitian Power." 

Several victory-coins of Caligula exist in gold and silver. One has 
Victory seated on a Globe; in her right hand a branch of laurel. Another 
has laurel in both hands. These are small differences to note, but they 
show that they were struck from different dies. This Victory refers to 
the visits of Caligula to Britain and Germany. The Legend, TR POT 
IIII, gives the year a.d. 40. The story goes that as the spoils of victory 
were too scanty for building a trophy, he required the Praetorian Guards 
to cut trees and construct one from the productions of the forest. 

Other evidences of his respect for Augustus are seen in coins having 
the radiate head of that prince; another with a star upon each side of 
the head, and another with seven stars surrounding the head. Radia- 
tion denotes deification and the two 6tars indicate Drusus and German- 
icus, father and grandfather of Caligula. In the group of seven, five 
denote the five brothers of Caligula. Another of this class of coins 
(a quinarius) exhibits a scepter laid transversely across the neck. . One 
writer suggests that these stars refer to Arcturus, the tail of the Great 
Bear. An elegant silver coin, very large, has the figure of Augustus, 
togated, sitting in a chariot drawn by four elephants, with drivers sitting 
on the neck, in Oriental mode, and seven stars surrounding the prince. 

The smaller cuts, placed below the coins on the sheet of engravings 
(fourth page), are explanatory of different numbers of this series of "The 
Twelve Caesars." Commencing at the left hand, they are named: 1, 
Curule Chair; "2, Obsidional Crown; 3, Civic Crown; A, Sacrificial Knife; 
5, Roman Ring; 6, Roman Altar; 7, Arch of Titus, at Rome; 8, Sacri- 
ficial Axe; 9, Fasces with Hatchet; 10, Ovalis Crown; 11, Naval Crown; 
12, Sacrificial Knife; IS, Roman Lady's Ear-ring; tt, Mural Crown; 15, 
Triumphal Crown; 16, Vallaris Crown; 17, Roman Ring. 

All the coins figured in this series are extant, but not in this country. 
The collection in the United States Mint, at Philadelphia, is rich in 
them, but as a whole the inquirer is directed to the immense collec- 
tions in Paris, France, embracing more than one hundred thousand 




Ammioam Association ©J Numismatists* 


[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome from 
B.C. 47 to a.d. 96, Claudius, a.d. 41-54, is the fifth. The four who precede 
him, under this title, were: Julius Caesar, b.c. 47-44; Augustus, b.c. 
31-a.d. 14; Tiberius, 14-37, and Caligula, 37-41. The seven who succeed 
him: Nero, 54-68; Galba, 68-69; Otho, 69; Vitellius, 69; Vespasian, 69- 
79; Titus, 79-81, and Domitian, 81-96.1 

Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus, fifth of the Caesars, Em- 
peror of Rome a.d. 41 to 54, was horn at Lyons, in Gaul, August 1, B.C. 10. 
The reigning emperor was Augustus. His father was Nero Claudius Dru- 
sus (vulgo Drusus Senior), the first Germanicus; and the celebrated Ger- 
manicus, of German fame, was his brother. His mother was the beautiful 
and illustrious Antonia, niece of Augustus. It is pleasant to recall the 
fact that the unsullied fidelity of Drusus to his marriage bed was a theme 
of popular admiration and applause even in that most profligate age. 

But the father died while the son was yet in infancy. The constitution 
of Claudius being feeble, he exhibited a weakness of intellect which, 
throughout all his life, showed itself in an extraordinary deficiency in 
judgment, tact and presence of mind. This led to his childhood being 
neglected. He was despised and intimidated by his nearest relatives, and 
left to the care of pedagogues who treated him harshly. His own mother 
stigmatized him as a portentum hominis (a human monster), and declared 
there was something in his nature wanting to the true make-up of a man. 
It follows that he failed in his undertaking from the lack of judgment, 
and made himself ridiculous in the eyes of others. He was excluded from 
the society of his family, and confined to that of slaves and women. 
Augustus and Tiberius always treated him with contempt. Caligula, his 
nephew, raised him to the consulship, indeed, but allowed him no part 
in public affairs. 

Yet Claudius grew up to a manhood of uncommon industry, diligence 
and research. During the long period previous to his accession to the 
purple (for he was fifty-one years of age when crowned), he devoted the 
larger part of his time to literary pursuits. Living in obscurity, and tak- 
ing no part in the administration of government, his opportunities to col- 
lect the political and historical facts of the day were improved in the 
composition of a set of annals from the death of Caesar, to which Tacitus 
and other Roman historians are supposed to have been indebted for much 
that makes their works valuable. In this labor, Livy, the historian, en- 
couraged him. Suestonius describes his literary work as " a composition 
more awkward than elegant." He also composed histories of various coun- 

Claudius was four times married (some historians say three). His first 
wife was Plautia Urgulanilla, by whom he had a son and a daughter. 
Divorcing her for cause, he married Aelia Petina. This union being soon 
severed by divorce, he married the notorious Messalina, " an exemplar of 
female profligacy." Upon her death for crime, a.d. 48, he chose his own 
niece, Agrippina, mother of Nero, and the worst of the four. 

Following the death of Caligula, a.d. 41, there was an interregnum of 
two days, when Claudius was made Emperor by joint consent of the Sen- 
ate and the army. His first acts were far-seeing and humane, evincing the 
same kind and amiable disposition which he had exhibited through so 
many years of private life; and all through his reign of thirteen years, 
when left to act upon his own impulses, Claudius seemed a kind, good 
and honest man. 

During his reign, as we shall see from his coins, he was particularly 
fond of architectural enterprises. He built the famous Claudian aqueduct, 
and the port of Ostia, and drained Lake Fucinus. Various wars were 
conducted in Britain, Germany, Syria and Mauretania by his generals. 
He made a short visit to Britain, a.d. 43, and constituted that island into a 
Roman province. For this he obtained the surname " Britannicus," and 
enjoyed upon his return to Rome a magnificent triumph. 

During his reign an attempt was made to celebrate the Ludos Secu- 
lares, or Centennials of Rome, of which we have spoken under Augustus 
and Domitian. It was unsuccessful. 

His death was the result of poiBon, administered in a dish of mush- 
rooms by his wife, Agrippina, who had already secured the promise of 
the succession to her son, Nero. Seeing some indications in the fickle 
mind of Claudius that he might withdraw from that promise and nominate 
his own son, Britannicus, she put the Emperor to death. It is needless to 
say the death of the son was not long delayed. This unhappy lad. son of 
Claudius and Messalina, was born a.d. 42, during the second consulship of 

his father. When the title of Britannicus was bestowed by the Senate 
upon the Emperor, it was shared by the young prince as his proper and 
distinguishing appellation. He was cherished as the heir-apparent to the 
throne until the disgraceful termination of his mother's career. Upon the 
Emperor's marriage to the ambitious and unscrupulous Agrippina, her eon, 
Nero, by a former marriage, was adopted heir, to the exclusion of Bri- 
tannicus. Upon Nero's accession to the purple the poor lad, then twelve 
years of age, was poisoned. The first draught failed of success, when a 
second, mixed with wine, was presented him at a banquet where, in ac- 
cordance with the usage of the times, the children of the imperial family, 
together with other noble youths, were seated at a table apart from the 
other guests. Scarcely had the cup touched his lips when he fell back 
dead. He was buried the same night amidst a terrific rain-storm. 

The Emperor, as already hinted, enjoys the infamy of having had for 
wives two of the worst women named in history, Messalina and Agrippina. 
As each of these appears, in her turn, upon his coinB, they belong equally 
to our history. Messalina Valeria, his third wife, was married to him 
before his accession to the throne. The historians, Tacitus, Pliny, and 
Dion Cassius, and the satirist, Juvenal, agree in making her the exemplar 
of female profligacy. That as a wife she was faithless, cannot be doubted. 
She was implacable when her fears were aroused, or her passions or avarice 
were to be gratified. The Emperor was her instrument and dupe. The 
most illustrious families of Rome were polluted by her favor, or sacrificed 
to her cupidity or hate; and the absence of virtue was not concealed by a 
lingering sense of shame, or even by a specious veil of decorum. Julia, 
daughter of Germanicus, and Julia, daughter of Drusus, were among her 
victims. The only refuge from her love or hate was the surrender of an 
estate or province, an office or a purse, to herself or her satellites. Claudius 
himself appeared to be, of all men, the only person ignorant of her perfidy. 
In his British triumph she followed his chariot in a carpentum. She re- 
ceived from the Senate the title of Augusta, and the right of precedence 
{jus consensus) at all assemblies. Her insanity at last took such a form that 
Claudius was compelled by his fears to issue her death-warrant, and she 
perished, a.d. 48, in helpless agony, by the tribune's hand, in the gardens 
of Lucullus, leaving two children,— Britannicus, of whom we speak above, 
and Octavia, who afterward married Nero, and was murdered by his order. 
The name, titles and statues of Messalina were removed from the palace 
and the public buildings of Rome by a decree of the Senate. 

Of Agrippina, fourth and last wife of the imbecile Claudius, our report 
is not more favorable. Could these wretches who harried the human race, 
like wolves among sheep — could they ever have thought that the people 
around them were gathering up and committing to record, from day to 
day, the facts of their guilt, and that in due time all would appear in pub- 
lic history! Is not this what the poet laureate calls 

"The fierce light that beats upon a throne?" 

Agrippina, styled the younger, as distinguished from her mother of the 
same name, was the daughter of the noble Germanicus, born about a.d. 
15, in the camp of the Legions commanded by her father. Thus, like her 
brother Caligula, the first sounds that saluted her ears were those of mili- 
tary life. A.D. 28 she married Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who died in 40. 
By him her infamous son Nero was born. Her next husband was C. Pas- 
sienus, who died some years afterward by poison, administered probably 
by herself. By this time she was notorious for her scandalous conduct — 
for her most perfidious intrigues and unbounded ambition. When her 
brother Caligula became Emperor, he banished her for cause, a.d. 39, to 
the island of Pontia, in company with her si6ter Drusilla. Upon the 
accession of her uncle, Claudius, to the throne, a.d. 41, they were released, 
although Messalina, the empress, was her mortal enemy. A.D. 48, upon 
the execution of Messalina, she was married to Claudius, the union being 
legalized by a decree of the Senate, by which the marriage of a man with 
his brother's daughter was declared valid. This law was abrogated three 
centuries later by Constantine the Great and his son Constans. 

By her influence over the Emperor, his son Britannicus was displaced 
from the succession in favor of her son Nero, and Octavia, daughter of 
Claudius, was married to that prince, then sixteen years of age. Having 
accomplished so much of her plan, she now resolved to give the quietus 
to her husband, and to govern the Empire through her influence with her 
son. This waB done, a.d. 54, at Sinuessa, a watering-place to which Clau- 
dius had retired for the improvement of his health. 

It is disgusting to relate the details of her subsequent career. Suffice 



that petty feminine intrigues came at last to be her ruin, and that, having 
escaped a plot for drowning her, a band of men was sent to her villa, who 
surprised her in her bedroom, and she was slain by the hand of a centurion. 
It is reported that Nero visited the house immediately after, and expressed 
his admiration of the beauty of her features and form! She left commen- 
taries upon her history and that of her family. 

The numerous references to camps upon the coins of Claudius, and 
upon Roman coinage generally, call for a description of Roman castra- 
mentation. The old Roman plan of never resting except in an intrenched 
camp, and the fact that every able-bodied Roman was conscripted to 
several years of military life, make this a theme of much numismatic 
interest. Although so much ib said, upon coins, ofVIRTVS (courage, 
bravery, gallantry), yet it is not to be supposed that all were fascinated 
with this sort of life. We may imagine more than one saying, " Let others 
have the reward of valor; but for my part I am content to hear the old 
soldiers around the festive board reciting their campaigns and drawing 
the plans of their battles on the board with wine." The representation 
of the storming of a camp is seen upon a coin of C. Numonius Vala, a 
cotemporary of the poet Horace. 

The representation of camps upon coins is more frequent in the days 
of Constantine than at the period of the twelve Caesars. The Romans 
never passed the night upon a march without fortifying their resting place. 
They never gave battle, except from sheer necessity, without having pre- 
viously fortified a camp to which they might retreat; and when we estimate 
the number of marches and battles engaged in by the legions in all parts 
of the Empire, for so many centuries, it presents the striking calculation 
that the field-work engineering thus performed would have constructed 
every railroad now in the ancient Empire. The military discipline of the 
Romans was so scaled that the soldier obeyed the centurion, the centurion 
the tribune, the tribune the lieutenant-general, the lieutenant-general the 
consul. Therefore when the army was upon the march, the engineers 
went before, under suitable guard, to choose and mark out a proper place 
for the camp. A tribunus militum made the selection with due attention 
to the nature of the surrounding country. The engineers immediately set 
to work to stake out the form, and as the Maniples came up, every one 
proceeded to its own quarters, and set to work there. As each Roman 
soldier was equally skillful with spade as with sword, with ax as with 
spear, the work went on with incredible speed and accurate joining of 

The form of the camp, when the ground permitted, was square. It was 
surrounded by a broad ditch, upon the inner edge of which was a rampart 
protected by stakes. Four openings were left for gates, one on each side. 
That next the enemy (if in a hostile country) was the Porta praetoria; 
opposite to that (in the rear) the Porta decumana. Those on the sides 
were Porta principalis dextra, and Porta principalis sinistra. Entrances 
to these gates were fortified with excessive care and skill. 

An area exactly proportioned to the forces having been thus marked 
out and fortified, the first place provided for was the General's quarters, 
called the praetorium. On one side of that were the quarters of the Lieu- 
tenant-Generals; on the other that of the Questor. The camp was pri- 
marily divided into two halves, and immediately within the rampart was a 
vacant space about two hundred feet broad, to protect the troops from 
missiles thrown over the fortifications. In the neighborhood of an enemy, 
sentinels (procubitores) circumambulated the entire camp, exchanging 
the watchword and keeping strictest vigil. To desert the post or to sleep 
on the post was death without appeal. 

That portion of the camp seen upon coins is the Praetorian Gate, which, 
when the camp was a standing one, was usually built up and ornamented 
as an imposing structure. 


Of twenty-fonr coinB, gold and bronze, of the Emperor Claudius, from 

the illustrations on the fourth page. 

[The student will observe in these Readings: First, that the size of a 
Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture. Second, that the 
metal is distinguished by an abbreviation,— AV (aurum) standing for gold; 
AR (argentum) for silver; AE (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, words in- 
discriminately used in Numismatics. Third, that there are few punctua- 
tion points on Coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to facili- 
tate Readings. Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms of Greek 
letters here, but substitute modern type; and, Fifth, that these Readings 
are prepared for the use of Learners as well as experts.] 

No. 1, AE. To preserve symmetry, the two faces of this coin are 
separated on the sheet. 

Obverse. The laureate head of Claudius to the right. Inscription 
(abbreviated): Tl CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP; (supplied) 
— Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus; Pontifex Maximus; Tribunitia 

Potestate; Imperator,— " Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus; High Priest; 
exercising the Tribunitian Power; Emperor. 

Reverse. A Civic Crown. Legend (abbreviated): EX SC OB CTVES 
SERVATOS ; (supplied) — Ex Senatus Consulto ob Cives Servatos,— ■' For 
preserving the lives of Citizens; by Decree of the Senate." 

In some coins of this class there is a countermark in front of the face, 
with the letters P R O B, for Populi Romani Oblatio,— " An oblation of 
the Roman people." 

This coin was struck the year of his accession, a.d. 41. Claudius had 
revoked the law of lese-majeste, recalled exiles, reduced taxes, restored 
estates, etc., and so was accounted worthy the Civic Wreath. 

No. 2, AE. This coin was struck under the reign of Nero, but inserted 
here as referring to events proper to the time of Claudius. 

Obverse. The Port of Ostium at the mouth of the Tiber, as construct- 
ed by Claudius, but dedicated by Nero. The form, as seen in the engrav- 
ing, is circular. At the entrance, as if Conditor of the Port, and in the 
background of the engraving, is a statue of Claudius, paludated, standing 
upon a square base under the word Augusti("of the Augustus "). The 
right hand of the statue is extended, the left supported by a long staff. 
This statue was a mark to mariners by day. By night a light was affixed 
to the right hand to serve as a pharos. The sides are archways for the 
flow of water into and out of the port. There are also temples in the in- 
closing rim for the worship of marine deities. A colossal statue of Nep- 
tune recumbent is in the foreground, his left arm upon a dolphin. (In 
some of these coins his right arm rests on the broad part of a rudder.) 
The port contains four sailing and three rowing galleys. Beneath the 
recumbent figure is the Inscription (abbreviated): S POR OST C; (sup- 
plied) — Portus Ostii; Senatus Consnlto,— " The Port of Ostium; by 
Decree of the Senate." The numismatist Vaillant suggests that the 
recumbent figure may be that of Portumnus (Portunus), a tutelary god of 
harbors, roadsteads and navigation, identified with the Greek Palaemou. 

Reverse. In our engravings (taken from Vaillant's Selectiora Numis- 
mata of 1695), the Reverse is as given here, viz., an Annona coin with 
Ceres seated to the right holding her torch in right hand. Before her, as 
if addressing her, stands the goddess of Abundance with the cornucopia, 
her unvarying symbol, on the right arm. An altar is between them. This 
coin represents the diligence of Nero in procuring corn for the people. 
The words, Ceres Annona Angusti are read, " Ceres the Corn-deity of 

But according to Hobler's Records of Roman History, the Obverse of 
our Coin No. 2 is the laureate head of Nero to the right, with Inscription, 
"Nero Claudius CaeBar Augustus Germanicus; High Priest; exercising 
Tribunitian Power; Emperor; Father of the Country." As we have never 
seen this coin we cannot decide between conflicting authorities. 

But few coins exhibit such a variety, yet not crowded, upon a Reverse as 
this of Ostium. Both as a matter of history and art it will bear critical 
investigation. The old port of Ostium was constructed by Ancus Marcius, 
about B.C. 626. He made it a place of importance, and the shipping port of 
Rome. When the Romans began to be better known as a naval power, a 
fleet of war-galleys was maintained there. Julius Caesar undertook the 
enlargement and repair of the port, but Claudius gave himself to the work 
with great heartiness, and completed it at a cost so enormous that the 
architect refused to make proposals for it, declaring that it would ruin 
him. " So," says the old historian, " Claudius, nothing deterred, put his 
60ul into the work (rem in animum suum induxit) and completed it in a 
manner worthy the magnanimity and power of Rome." 

Ostium, now styled Ostia, is eighteen miles from Rome, and still much 
frequented as a watering place. In Hobler's Roman Coins there are 
drawings and elaborate descriptions of the port. 

No. 3, AV. An elegant gold coin. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Claudius to the right. Inscription (sup- 
plied): Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; Pontifex Maxi- 
mus; Tribunitia Potestate. For translation see No. 1. 

Reverse. The image of Victory to the right, inscribing glorious deeds 
upon a shield. Right foot rests upon a globe. Legend: Victoria August(i) 
—"The Victory of the Augustus" (more strictly, "the Victory which 
is the tutelary of the Emperor.") This coin refers to the success of Clau- 
dius (a.d. 4.3) in Britain, for which he triumphed with such great honors. 
The goddess rests her foot upon the globe as if a new world had been 
acquired for Roman supremacy. For Britain, divided from all the world, 
seemed to the Romans a new earth. 

No. 4, AE. A Greek Imperial. The style of lettering is extremely cu- 
rious. We know nothing like it, except the shekels and their aliquots, 
struck by the Jews when they first acquired the right to coin money, 
B.C. 140. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Claudius to the right. Poor art. Inscrip- 
tion (abbreviated): TI KAAYAIOY KAIZAP02 IB— "Of Tiberius Clau- 
dius Caesar Augustus, the 12th year." This sets the date a.d. 52. 

Reverse. Head of Agrippina to the left. Legend (abbreviated): 
ArPinniNAN 2EBA5THN IOYAIAN— " The Empress Julia Agrippina." 



This was the fourth and last wife of Tiberius, whose hand was among 
those that gave him his death. The mother of Nero, it is not unpleasant 
to recall the fact that, she was eventually slain by his order. There ib 
a countermark before the neck of this portrait a monogram, read BA K 
for BA2IAEY2 KAAYAI02— " Claudius the King." 

No. 5, AE. 

Reverse. Two legionary standards, one of them that of seventh Legion, 
the other not legible, but probably the eleventh. Each of the eagles, with 
extended wings, rests one foot upon a cippus. Claudius gave great favors 
to the soldiers of the seventh (" Urban ") and the eleventh (" Claudian " ) 
Legions. He described them to the Senate as Faithful and Pious, in 
memory of which circumstance this coin was struck. 

A series of articles by the present writer, published in The Army 
and Navy Journal, 1876, " The Legions of Rome as illustrated by coins of 
the period," is the medium of more extended information under this head. 

No. 6, AE. 

Reverse. Three military ensigns. The central one, on which the eagle 
with expanded wings stands on thunderbolts, is legionary. The property 
of the twenty-second (" Primigenia "), which was formed by Augustus, in 
Egypt, and styled Pious and Faithful. COL A A PATR is read, Colonia 
Augusta Aroa Patrensis— "The Colona Augusta Aroa Patrens." This 
was in Achaia, where the twenty-second Legion, when disbanded by 
Augustus, had been colonized. For favors received from the Emperor 
Claudius they struck this coin. 

No. 7, AE. 

Obverse. Unlaureate head of Clandius to the left. Inscription (sup- 
plied): Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. 

Reverse. The three children of Claudius, the central figure looking 
to the left, the other two looking inward. Below them a double corunco- 
piae overflowing with fruits and foliage. Above, the word LIBERIS (da- 
tive plural of Liberi)— "To the (three) children." Beneath, the initials 
COL A A P — "Colonia Augusta Aroa Patrens," — for which see No. C, 
struck at the same place. 

The three children here figured are Drusus and Claudia, son and 
daughter by his first wile, Plautia, and Octavia by his third wife, Messa- 
lina. The latter was married to Nero, divorced and put to death by his 

No. 8, AE 

Re-terse. The figures of Julius Caesar and Augustus standing on a 
suggestum to the left. On each side the platform is a square block, as if 
designed for two other figures. The position is graceful. Their legs are 
crossed and they stretch the right hand forward as if addressing an 
assembly. On the suggestum the words DIVVS AVG (nstuB) — " The 
deified Augustus." Legend (supplied): Colonia Augusta Julia Philippi. 

Philippi, a city of Macedon, named from Philip the father of Alex- 
ander the Great. Its greatest fame in Roman history was connected with 
the defeat of the forces of Brutus, which occurred there B.C. 43. The 
Roman colony at Philippi, in gratitude to Claudius for his liberality, struck 
this coin in his honor, placing upon the Obverse those two of his prede- 
cessors who had been equally generous. 

No. 9, AE. 

Reverse. A figure of Neptune to the left in his shelly chariot, drawn 
by tritons, one of which is sounding a blast to the winds and waves, with 
a conch. The trident of the marine deity iB prominent. This type Patin 
styles " uncommon and very celebrated." 

No 10, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. Victory marching to the right, with palm branch in both 
hands, hut no wreath. Legend: MYfiN02 2YNATKIAA APOKEflN (for 
Antiocheon) — Myonis Synarchia Antiochensium,— "The College of the 

The image of Victory expresses the general glorification over the cam- 
paign of Claudius in Britain, and the mint-master of Antioch hastens to 
offer his tribute in the lesB perishable form of coins. 

No. 11, AK. A Greek Imperial, to be studied in connection with No. 20. 

Reverse. A hippopotamus to the right, under the word AYTOKPA 
(toris) — " Of the Emperor." This coin was struck at the colony of Cae- 
sarea, in Mauritania, established by the Emperor Claudius. 

In the Millennial of Rome, a.d. 248, the Emperor Philip the Arabian, 
held a celebration of the one-thousandth year of Rome, with immense 
pomp, games, gladiatorial contests and the exhibition of wild beasts. Of 
the latter the collection was worthy the extent and enterprise of the Em- 
pire in its palmiest days. There were paraded through the streets of 
Rome on that occasion no less than 32 elephants, 10 elks, 10 hyenas, 30 
leopards, 1 hippopotamus, 1 rhinoceros, 10 ostriches, 20 wild asses, 10 
cameleopards, and a host of wild beasts less rare. The coins of the period 
contain specimens of the greater part of these. 

No. 12, AE. A Greek Imperial, to be studied in connection with No. 13. 

Reverse. A wreath of laurel, within which KOlNfiN KYIIPlfiN — 
"The Community (Partnership, Fellowship) of the Cyprians." This 
partnership between neighboring municipalities was common, even for 

several centuries after this period. How far it extended, what friendly 
ties it secured between people otherwise inimical, may be seen in cyclo- 
pedias, under this head. 

The present specimen was struck by some of the free cities named, in 
acknowledgment of favors received from the Emperor Claudius. 

No. 13, AE. A Greek Imperial, to be studied in connection with the 

Reverse. In the center, KYUPinN — "Of the Cyprians." Inscrip- 
tion: E1II KOMINIOY nPOKAOY AN0YIIATO2 — " Under Cominius 
Proclus, the Proconsul of the Cyprians." The reader will observe some 
disorder in the lettering — perhaps the fault of the artist. 

No. 14, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. Six fertile heads of wheat, tied at the stalks. Greek letters, 
L B, for Lukabantos 2, "of the second year " of the reign of Claudius, 
viz. a.d. 42. This emblem suggests Ceres and her abounding supplies of 
grain. In the coins of Sicily, styled, " the native home of Ceres," on ac- 
count of its productiveness, the emblem abounds. The coin before us 
was struck, like the last two, in Cyprus, a fertile island. 

No. 15, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. Head of one of the wives of Claudius, under the guise of 
Ceres, to the right. The words BEA 2EBA2TH are read, " the Goddess 
Augusta," (or the deified Empress), an expression which in those days 
meaDt as little as the words "Most Gracious," applied to modem rulers. 
The bust is modestly draped. 

No. 10, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. A temple front of six columns. Inscription mutilated: 
"- os Anthupatos" for "Lucius Mindius Balbus, Proconsul of the Nicae- 
ans." Over the entrance the word NIKAIEQN — "Of the Nicaeans." 
Nicaea, a celebrated city in Bithyuia, where this monument was struck, 
appears frequently upon coins. 

No. 17, AE. A Greek Imperial. This and the two succeeding coins 
may be studied together. 

Reverse. The personification of the river Nile to the right. The face 
aged, bearded; bust draped. Beneath is a double cornucopiae, from one 
of which emerges an infant. The word AYTOKPA(tori) is read, "to the 

The symbolism of this coin is very curious and inviting. That the 
people of Egypt should wish the Imperial family to be prolific in children 
could not be more neatly turned than this. 

No. 18, AE. 

Reverse. The head of Isis, the goddess of Egypt, to the right. Bust 
draped. On the forehead an elephant's head, a common type on coins of 
the African provinces. The Greek word is read as in No. 17. 

No. 19, AE. 

Reverse. An eagle standing upon fulmina, to the right. The Greek 
word is read as in No. 17. The letters below, AIT. are Lukabantos 13, 
" of the 13th year " of the reign of Claudius, viz. a.d. 43. 

Upon much the larger part of the bronze coinage of Egypt the date is 
given in this easy manner, a method so far superior to that pursued in 
most of the mints of the Empire that it is strange the Senate did not ap- 
preciate it. 

No. 20, AE. 

Reverse. Joined hands. The Greek word is read as in No. 17. 

No. 21, AE. 

Reverse. The head of Messalina to the right. Hair elaborately braided; 
bust draped. Inscription: Valeria Messalina Augusta. 

No. 22, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

The Obverse has the laureate head of Claudius to the right, with 
Inscription: Tiberius Claudius Germanicus Augustus. 

Reverse. The hcadB of Claudius and his wife Agrippina turned to 
each other. The reader will imagine the last look of this precious queen 
when she handed her husband the poisoned draught which ended his 
life. Legend (Anglici): " Claudius Augustus;; Agrippina Augusta." 

No. 23, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. The head of Agrippina to the right. Bust draped; hair ele- 
gantly adorned with two spicae (wheat heads). The Greek word "Agrip- 
pina" explains itself. This woman so coveted the possession of power 
that she said, " Let me die, but let me rule." 

No. 24, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Obverse. Agrippina in the habit of Ceres, to the right. Hair ornately 
arranged; bust draped. Out of her bosom spring two wheat-ears, and 
between them a poppy-head. These indicate fruitfulness, and gratitude 
to God. Inscription (Anglice): Augusta Agrippa. 

Reverse. This is one of the finest groups of our series. The figure is 
that of " the goddess of the chase." Diana, drawiug forth an arrow from 
the quiver. In her left hand the bow is vibrating. Upon her head is the 
crescent-moon. At her feet is a stag, and a nymph is holding the head of 
another stag. Legend (abbreviated): Em 2EPOTHNIOY KAIIITfiN02 
KAI IOYAIA2 2EOYHPA2 AKMflNEDN —"Under Serotenius Capito, and 
Julia Severa, of the people of Acmonia." This is a city in Phrygia. 


(Mu= Sheets* 

Amesmmm Animation Qi Numismatists, 


[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome, from 
B.C. 47 to a.d. 96, Nero, a.d. 54-68, was the sixth. The five who preceded 
him under this title were, Julius Caesar, b.c. 47-44; Augustus, e.c. 31- 
a.j). 14; Tiberius, 1-1-37; Caligula, 37-41, and Claudius, 41-54. The six 
who succeeded him, Galba, 68-69; Otho,69; Vitellius, 69; Vespasian, 69- 
79; Titus, 79-81, and Domitian, 81-96.] 

Tiberius ClaudiuB Nero Drusus, sixth of the Caesars, Emperor of Rome 
a.d. 54 to 68, was born at Antium, also the birth-place of Caligula, ten 
miles south of Rome, December 15, a.d. 37. The reigning Emperor was 
Caligula. His father was Cneius Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul a.d. 32, 
and proconsul in Italy, a man whose life was stained with crimes of every 
hue. His mother was Agrippina, daughter of the good Germanicus, J but 
herself a woman of such infamous character that when the birth of Nero 
was announced, his father openly declared that anything sprung from 
himself and Agrippina could bring nothing but ruin to the State. The 
mother of Nero, losing her first husband, a.d. 40, and then a second, was 
married, for the third time, to the Emperor Claudius. After a life of 
cruelty and intrigue, she was put to death by command of Nero himself. 

Poisoned as to the veins with such blood, with a childhood spent in 
the most dissolute surroundings, Nero still enjoyed the teachings of 
Seneca; and having taste and talent of his own, studied the arts, composed 
verses, and acquired a moderate knowledge of music. In private station 
he would have passed through life like others who, rich and idle, live and 
die, leaving the world but little the worse and none the better for having 
gone through it. 

But it was the curse of Imperial Rome that whom the better deities 
chose for command, evil influences held in the background. Upon the 
assassination of Claudius, a.d. 54, the Emperor's son, Britannicus, being 
set aside by the intrigues of Agrippina, Nero was brought forward as heir 
to the crown. Saluted Imperator by the soldiers, the Senate acquiesced in 
the decision, and the provinces received him as their master.' 

A connected genealogical chain from Julius Caesar to Nero will be use- 
ful here as mnemonical. 

1. Julius Caesar. 2. Augustus, the grand-nephew of Julius by Atia, 
daughter of Julia, sister of Julius. 3. Tiberius, step-son of Augustus. 
4. Caligula, grand-nephew of Tiberius. 5. Claudius, nephew of Ti- 
berius, and second cousin of Caligula. 6. Nero, stepson of Claudius, and 
last descendant of Julia, sister of Julius Caesar. 

Nero was thrice married. At the age of sixteen he was espoused to 
Octavia, daughter of the Emperor Claudius and Messalina. Never dis- 
guising his aversion to this lady, he divorced her on the plea of sterility, 
and took for a second wife Poppaea, whom he had seduced from Otho, 
afterward Emperor. Octavia was then charged with incontinency, ban- 
ished, and put to death by the arts of Poppaea. She was but twenty years 
of age, and her unhappy life and untimely death were the subject of 
general commiseration. 

Agrippina, mother of Nero, was likewise a victim to the animosity of 
Poppaea. The death of Poppaea came in due order; her brutal husband, 
in a fit of passion, kicked her when pregnant, and the blow proved fatal. 
His next enterprise in the direction of a wife was that of his own sister by 
adoption, Antonia, daughter of Claudius; but she refused the honor, and 
suffered death for her contumacy. Finally he married Statilia Messalina, 
whose husband he had slain, and she survived him. He left no children. 

So, at the immature age of scant seventeen, 'he boy Nero, — not yet 
developing any particular trait of character, much leBS that odious and 
detestable one, that besottedly fanatical and intolerant one, which has 
linked him with Caligula, Domitian. Commodus and Elagabalus as the 
monsters of human kind,— assumed the Roman purple. 

The beginning of his reign was no worse than might be expected of an 
illy-educated youth of seventeen. His public addresses, written by Seneca, 
were models of oratory. He made favorable dispositions to the Senate, 
and divided crowns and kingdoms with liberal hand. 

His years of consulship are thus tabulated: 

First consulship, a.d. 55, with L. Antistius Vetus. 

Second consulship, a.d. 57, with L. Capurnius Piso. 

Third consulship, a.d. 58, with Valerius Messalla. 

Fourth consulship, a.d. 60, with C. Cornelius Lentulus. 

Fifth consulship, a.d. 68, alone. 

The principal events 6tf Nero's reign were the breaking forth, a.d. 65, 
of the rebellion in Judea, which resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem, 

a.d. 70. Coins referring to the subjugation of the Hebrews were struck 
under Vespasian, Titus and Domitian. The unprecedented fire of a.d. 64, 
in which much of the city of Rome perished, belongs to this reign. Of 
the fourteen regiones of the city, ten were reduced to ashes. The origin of 
the conflagration was popularly attributed to Nero himself, though it is 
difficult to understand what motive could have actuated him. Nero him- 
self threw the odium upon the Christians, of whom many were in conse- 
quence slain by the most refined tortures. A great eclipse of the sun 
occurred shortly after the death of Agrippina, and awakened superstitious 
fear throughout the Empire. The rebellion in Britain, in which the name 
of Boadicea appears, was easily put down by Nero's lieutenant. The year 
a.d. 60 was marked by the appearance of a portentous comet, which be- 
tokened some catastrophe. 

The death of Nero was a fitting close to a life whose wanton and licen- 
tious appetite had alienated every one. Deserted by his friends, he was 
condemned by the Senate to be put to death more majomm, " in the 
ancient style," which was, " to have his head fixed in a fork, and be whipped 
to death! " He fled to a house outside the city and stabbed himself, June 
9, a.d. 68, after a reign of thirteen years, seven months and twenty-eight 
days. St. Paul may have had him in view when he wrote (Romans iii, 13) 
of the mouth that was an open sepulchre. 

With Nero we bid farewell to the line of emperors and chiefs professing 
to be descended from Aeneas and Augustus. We bid farewell to them and 
to the Btate of things which they created and maintained in the Empire. 
A new scene commences. The old Bystem of hereditary descent com- 
menced by Julius Caesar and kept in force for a century, is broken up, and 
the army having discovered the secret of creating an Emperor, the republic 
is at once thrown into their power, and all the rights and authority of the 
Consuls and Senate, as the true legislators, are set aside, and they are 
treated as mere puppets, to be called into play at the caprice of the military. 

The frequent appearance upon the coins of Nero of his second wife 
Poppaea demands a brief account of this beautiful but vicious woman. 
She came from a noble family at Rome. The historian says that she pos- 
sessed everything needful to make a perfect woman except 'a virtuous 
mind. Surpassing beauty, ample fortune, conversational powers distin- 
guished for sprightliness and vivacity— such were her qualities. She was 
first married to Rufus Crispinus, praetorian prefect under Claudius, by 
whom she had a son. Being divorced from him, she then married Otho, 
afterward Emperor. Nero, making her acquaintance, removed Otho to 
the province of Lusitania, and she became the mistress of the Emperor. 
But her ambition aspired to be his wife ; and as Agrippina, mother of Nero, 
was the chief obstacle, she worked upon his mind to put his mother to 
death, a.d. 59, a fate she had long merited. The next step was to separate 
Nero from his wife Octavia, whom he had always disliked. By working 
alternately upon his [hopes and fears she succeeded, and the unhappy 
lady who, indeed, had brought to her husband the Empire itself, was first 
divorced and then slain. The marriage of Nero and Poppaea occurred 
a.d. 62, and her goal was gained. 

In the following year a daughter was born of the union. This event 
caused the most extravagant joy to Nero, and was celebrated with public 
games and rejoicings. Doubtless coins will be found impressed with thiB 
bit of history, as also the death of the infant, that soon followed; for it 
was enrolled among the gods, S. C, "by decree of the Senate! " A.D 65, 
Poppaea was again pregnant, but was killed by a blow from her husband 
inflicted in a fit of passion. Then the harlot herself was deified. Her 
body was enbalmed and deposited in the sepulchre of the Julian family. 
A public funeral was decreed, Nero himself delivering the oration, and a 
magnificent temple was dedicated to her, which bore the inscription, Sa- 
binae deae Veneri matron es fecerunl—* The mothers erected this to the 
goddess Venus Sabina" (Sabina, the proper name of Poppaea). The only 
people who regretted her death were the Jews, whose cause she had de- 
fended, doubtless for mercenary motives; and it is odd to see Josephus 
styling her in his Antiquities (xx. viii, 11) " a religious woman." Poppaea 
was inordinately fond of luxury and pomp, and took immense pains to 
preserve the beauty of her person. Her mules were shod with gold, and 
five hundred she-asses were milked daily to supply her with a bath of fresh 

The coins of Nero are usually fine. Like those of Cyzicene in Asia 
Minor, styled " the Cyzicene Staters," ou account of their elegance, many 
of Nero's are models of art. 



The attributes of Ceres were favorites upon the coins of Nero. These 
were so attractive to the moneyers of Greece and Rome that an account of 
so popular a deity is in place here. As agriculture is the basis of every 
well-regulated Bocial condition, the ideas associated with Ceres are those of 
peace and good rule. The arma cerealia were the plow, spade and imple- 
ments of husbandry. She was the mother or giver of cereal food gener- 
ally. The daughter of Cronus and Rhea, she was the mother of Proser- 
pine. The long torch usually seen in her left hand upon coins is con- 
nected with an incident very affecting in heathen mythology, in which 
much of human passion was wrapped up. Her daughter Proserpine had 
been abducted by Pluto and taken to his subterranean abode. Ceres, 
learning that this was done by the consent of Jupiter, refused to return to 
her heavenly place, and remained among men, conferring blessings by 
causing the fields to produce grain. Upon the restoration of her daughter, 
however, she consented to change her resolution, but first instructed men 
in the art of agriculture. 

"Upon the coins we see the long torch, with fire burning from the top, 
with which Bhe went about in search of her daughter; also the mystic 
basket shaped like a barrel. Sometimes 6he holds a sceptre, corn ears or 
a poppy. Around her head is a garland of wheat ears, or a simple ribband. 
Her stature is tall and majestic. 

Her ascription upon coins are such as these: Ceres Annona; Ceres 
Augusta; to Ceres the Fruitbearer (Oereri Frugiferae); to Ceres the 
Restorer (Redux), etc. In the folio of 1764, D'Orville's Sicula, the 
representations of Ceres are the most frequent of the two hundred and 
forty specimens there figured. She is delineated among them as a beauti- 
ful woman, matronly, her head crowned with spicse (wheat ears), which 
are interwoven with her hair in many beautiful forms. In some of them 
earrings are worn in forms of jewelry used at the present day by oriental 
women; for the island of Sicily was reckoned the favored home of Ceres. 

In examining coins of Nero we may recall the fact that, when they 
were struck, thousands of Christians were living concealed in the cata- 
combs of Rome, marking upon the soft stone those emblems and inscrip- 
tions that express the undying faith which sent them there. We find 
upon none of his coins yet discovered any allusion to the burning of Rome 
or to the persecution of the Christians. 



Of twenty-three coins, silver and bronze, of the Emperor Nero, from the 

illustrations on the fourth page. 

[The student will observe in these Readings: First, that the size of a 
Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture. Second, that the 
metal is distinguished by an abbreviation, — AV (aurum) standing for gold; 
AR (argentum) for silver; AE (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, words 
indiscriminately used in Numismatics. Third, that there are few punctu- 
ation points on Coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to 
facilitate Readings. Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms of 
Greek letters here, but substitute modern type; and, Fifth, that these 
Readings are prepared as well for the use of Learners as experts.] 

No. 1, AE. A medallion. The two faces are set at opposite sides of 
the page, to preserve symmetry. 

Obverse. The laureate head of Nero to the left. Chin prominent, 
almost to deformity; beard crisp, thick, woolly; bust undraped; pose of 
the head superb. 

Inscription (abbreviated): NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM 
PM TRP IMP PP; (supplied) — Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Ger- 
manicus Pontifex Maximus Tribunitia Potestate Imperator Pater Patriae— 
"Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; the High Priest; exer- 
cising the Tribunitian Power; Emperor; Father of the Country." 

Reverse. An Allocution scene. Nero, togated, is standing in front of 
a suggestum. A person, also togated, standing near him, a little retired. 
Nero is addressing three soldiers, representatives of the three Maniples 
composing a Cohort. One bears the legionary eagle, one the open hand 
or flag of the maniple. In the rear of the military delegates is the Prae- 
torium at Rome. Legend (abbreviated): ADLOCVT COH; (supplied)— 
ADLOCVTIO COHORTI— " Address to the Cohort." 

There are bronze coins of precisely the same type as this, weight 392 
grains; and the "Allocution" here marked presents the earliest type of 
Nero's reign. He is addressingthe Praetorian soldiers upon his accession, 
a.d. 54, and the person standing by him on the suggestum is Burrhus, 
commander of those favored troops. 

No. 2, AE. 

Obverse. The laureate head of Nero to the right. General expression 
and poise of the head as No. 1. Hair curly, dressed in front in a curious 
pattern. Inscription as No. 1. At the point of the bust is a figure of a 
mask. We often find in his coins at the bust a small globe. 

Reverse. An Annona scene; expressed with such rare beauty that 

the hand of Nero himself, an accomplished artist, may be detected in it. 
Legend: ANNONA AVGSTI CERES— "Ceres the Annona of the Augus- 
tus." S. C, Senatus ConBulto-" By Decree of the Senate." This always 
implies the decree sent to the Chief of the Mint, specifying the purpose, 
character and value of the coin ordered. To read the Reverse of this 
beautiful coin we begin with the sitting figure. Ceres, seated to the left 
on a square seat; in her left hand is a lighted torch, under her left foot a 
low stool. Her right hand points to a decorated altar, on which is a 
grain-measure (modius). A female in front of her, whose left foot also 
rests upon a low stool, bears an overflowing cornticopiae on her left arm; 
in the background, as a shadow, appears the stern part of a grain-galley. 

It was the custom of the Emperors to distribute annually a supply of 
grain to the poorer classes of Rome. This gratuity was called Annona, 
from annus a year; annona=the yearly produce of the earth. 

No. 3, AE. This represents the closing of the Temple of Janus. It 
may be studied in connection with No. 4. Nero closed the gates of this 
temple a.d. 58, for the first time since the days of Augustus. 

Reverse. Temple of Janus Quirinus. On the right is the closed door. 
A garland is suspended so as to fall over the top of the door, which is 
arched. The side of the building shows openings for the admission of 
light. Legend (abbreviated): PACE P R TERRA MARI QVE PARTA 
IANVM CLVSIT; (supplied)— Pace Populi Romani Terra Marique Parta 
Janum Clusit— " The peace of the Roman people being brought forth on 
land and sea he closed Janus." In the Legend of Coin No. 4, the word 
Vbigue (everywhere) is substituted for Terra Marique with the same 

Of this coin Patin says: "In my opinion it exhibits the most superb 
of all antique inscriptions. In the midst is seen the temple that Numa 
the second king of Rome, constructed, which was the index of peace and 
war, signifying open in War, closed in Peace. Numa first closed it. Again 
it was shut after the first Punic war, a.v.c. 519; the third time, after the 
battle of Actium, by Augustus, 725; the fourth time, by the same prince, 
after the Cantabrian war, 729; the fifth time (as some authors aver), by the 
same at the birth of Jesus Christ." 

No. 4, AE. 

Reverse. The same as No. 3, except that VBIQ is substituted for 
TERRA MARIQVE, with the same meaning. 

No. 5, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Nero to the right. General expression as 
in preceding number. Inscription (abbreviated): NERO CAESAR AVG 
G IMP; (supplied)— Nero Caesar Augustus, Germanicus Imperator. 

Reverse. A Decursio scene, drawn with much spirit. A horseman, 
bareheaded, gallops to the right, his cloak flying behind him; in right 
hand a spear, couched as for the charge. Behind the horse a foot-soldier, 
running, armed with sword and shield. In front, a foot-soldier, with lance 
and shield, has fallen on his knees. In some coins with this type, the lat- 
ter is running with a standard. Legend: DECVR, for Decursio — "A Cav- 
alry Exercise." 

This coin was struck about a.d. 60, when Nero instituted certain five- 
years games. It represents the disciplina, or training exercises of the Ro- 
man cavalry. The two foot-soldiers are training to join and assist the 
cavalry in battle. 

No. 6, AE. 

Obverse. The unlaureate head of Nero to the right; beardless; trans- 
versely across the neck is a parazonium. Inscription (abbreviated): 
roni Claudio Caesari Augusto Imperatori Urino Volumnio — "To Nero, 
etc. ; from TJrinus Volumnius." 

Reverse. The heads of Nero and Octavia, his first wife, facing each 
other. Above his head is the figure of the Sun; above hers, the Moon. The 
arrangement of her hair, like that of other Roman matrons upon coins, is 
labored and elegant. Bust neatly draped. Inscription (supplied): Nero 
Claudius Caesar Augustus Imperater Octavia Augusta. 

Octavia was the daughter of the Emperor Claudius, born about a.d. 42, 
and married to Nero a.d. 53, at the age of eleven years, Nero being but 
sixteen. He divorced her a.d. 62. and shortly afterward put her to death. 

There is a question among numismatists as to this TJrinus Volum- 
nius, but he was probably the mint-master of Corinth, where this coin 
was struck. 

No. 7, AE. It may be studied in connection with Nos. 8 and 9, as they 
have the same Obverse. Like most coins struck in Greece (except those 
of Athens), it displays high numismatic art. 

Reverse. Bellerophon, with shield on left arm, governing Pegasus. 
This was the symbol or municipal emblem of the city of Corinth. The 
attitudes of horse and man in the coin are admirable. The Legend is 
partly erased by rust; all that we can read distinctly id, II VIR— "Du- 
umviri," the preceding word containing the name of that officer. COR 
is for " Corinth." 

We find from other coins of this class thafcthe moneyer's name was 
C IVLIO POLYAENO n VIR COR— "Cains Julius Polyaenus," etc. 



No. 8, AE. 

Reverse. A crown formed of celery inclosing the word ISTIIMIA — 
"Belonging to the isthmus of Corinth." COK, Corinthus— " Corinth." 

The word Isthmia may suggest the canal commenced through the 
Achaian isthmus, which the Corinthians attributed to Nero; or, it may 
refer to the Isthmian Games of Corinth, of which this celery crown was 
the distinguishing prize. 

As the death of St. Paul occurred about the period in which this coin 
was struck, and was perhaps due to the cruelty of Nero, we may compare 
his remarks relative to this crown, in 1 Corinthians ix. 

The abraded letters represent the Bame name as in No. 7, viz. " Caiii6 
Julius Polyaenus, the Duum-vir." 

No. 9, AE. This is an Adventus coin, and displays Hue art. 

Reverse. A Praetorian galley, six oars on a side. Vexillum is flying 
at the center. Legend (supplied): Adventus Augusti— " The Approach of 
the Augustus." The other letters may be studied in the light of Nos. 1 
and 8. It is difficult to explain the uniform illegibility of all these three 
classes of coins. 

No. 10, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Obverse. Head of Octavia, first wife of Nero, to the right. Hair ele- 
gantly braided and dressed; bust modestly draped. Inscription: OKTA- 
OYIA 2EBA2TA— Octavia Sebasta— " The Empress Octavia." The letter 
L is for AYKABANT02— "Of the year." the word "one" being under- 
stood. This dates the coin the same year of her marriage with Nero. 

Reverse. Head of Nero to the right, adorned with radiate crown; 
bearded. Inscription (Anglice): Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Em- 

No. 11, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. The numismatic type of a river, represented as a recum- 
bent man. From his right shoulder to his right hand extends a swamp 
reed. Under his arm is an urn, from which water flows. Inscription 
(abbreviated): Eni EPMOrE KAAP02 3XIYP— "Under (the rule of) 
Claras Hermogenis of the Smyrnaeans." 

The city of Smyrna struck many coins to Nero, as to other emperors, 
and the type here given refers to the situation of the city. Clarus Hermo- 
genis was Praetor under Nero. 

No. 12, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. A male figure, nude to the hips, to the right, looking upward 
and forward with ardent gaze. Right hand resting on a spear; on left 
arm, an overflowing cornucoplae. Left hand gathers and sustains the 
falling garments. Legend: AEM02 PnMAIQN— " The people of the Ro- 

This coin may be studied in connection with Nos. 4 and 13. It was 
probably struck in Roumania, Thrace. 

No. 13 AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. Figure of a cithara-player. This was the ancient harp or 
lyre. She is gracefully tripping to the right. In her left hand is the 
cithara; in her 'right, the dish for collecting donations. (? ) Legend: 
EPEITON AnOAAfiN— "Of the utterances of Apollo " Nero, as a de- 
votee of music, was a devout worshiper of Apollo. He not only made 
verses, but sung them upon the public stage. 

No. 14, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. Male figure, standing upon a suggestum, to the left. In 
right hand an urn. Legend (abbreviated): Yn AYrH IOY HPH2IEI- 
noY— "ByAulus Caius Julius Erisippus." 

The preposition Yn for Yno upon coins (like En for ETII) always 
implies the government by a magistrate. 

No. 15, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. A Macedonian shield. Inscription: 2EBA2T02 MAKE- 
AONfiN — "The Augustus of the Macedonians." We find, from exam- 
ination of coins, that the Macedonians, by whom this coin was struck, 
were in the habit of offering this shield to many Emperors. Often in 
silver, sometimes in gold, the gift was costly and grateful to the recipient. 

No. 16, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Nero to the right. Inscription: "Nero 
Caesar Augustus." 

Reverse. A winged Victory, moving to the right. In her right hand 
a laurel crown; in her left, a palm branch. Legend: ARMENIAS. 

At the commencement of Nero's reign, a.d. 54, Volagaeaes, King of 
the Parthians, attempted to invade Armenia, its prince, Rhadamistus, 
having been defeated. But Nero placed Corbulo over this province, who 
made peace with Vologaeses and received hostages. Hence this denarius 
was struck, with the name of Nero coupled with the Armenian victory. 

No. 17, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Obverse. Nero in the habit of Apollo to the right, bearing a cithara 
in his hands. Inscription: NEPfiNI AnOAAJlNI — "To Nero, the 

Reverse. The winged figure of Victory, gradient, to the left, with 
crown in right hand and palm branch in left. Legend: NEPI2N02 — 
"Of Nero." 

This interesting specimen confirms the historical statements of the 
" royal fiddler," for Suetonius refers to this very coin when he says that 
Nero erected his statues in the form a cithara player, and also struck 
coins with the same figure. Xiphilinus declares that Nero stood on the 
stage in the guise of a cithara player, and that he called himself by the 
name of Apollo, and overcame many in musical contests. 

No. 18, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. The figure of Agrippina, mother of Nero, seated on an 
ornamented chair to the left. A veil falls back from her forehead. In her 
left hand is an overflowing cornucopia; in her right a laurel branch. 
Legend: ArPIIIHEINlI 2EBA2T(H)— "The Empress Agrippina." Struck 
in some provincial city, it regards this dissolute princess as a deity to be 

No. 19, AE. 

Reverse. Head of Jupiter Ammon to the left, crowned, as enstom- 
ary, with ram's horns; bearded; hair thickly curled. Inscription (sup- 
plied): Colonia Julia Augusta Cassaudrens — " The Julian Augustan Colony 
at Cassandria." This place is situated in Macedonia, at the entrance of 
the Isthmus of Pallene. Pliny describes its people as worshiping a 
stone which fell from heaven. 

No. 20, AE. 

Reverse. A bull, to the right, pushing with horns and tossing the 
dust. Legend (abbreviated): EX CONSENSV C C I B; (supplied) — Ex 
Consensu Colonia Campestris Julia Babba — "By Consent of the Julian 
Campestral Colony of Babba." This Babba waB a city in Mauritian Tin- 

No. 21, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. The jugated heads of Nero and his wife, Poppaea, to the 
right. His head is laureate; hers presents the hair elaborately dressed; 
bust draped. Legend: " Nero, the Augustus; Poppaea, the Augusta." 

No. 22, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. Head of Poppaea to the right. The beauty of the hair- 
dressing is marvelous. Legend: "Poppaea Augusta." 

No. 23, AE. This may be compared with the two preceding. A Greek 

Reverse. Head of Poppaea to the right. Legend: "Poppaea Au- 
gusta." The letters LI are for Lukabantos I— "Of the year 10" of the 
reign of her husband; viz. a.d. 63. 

Among the gold coins of Nero we instance the -following, which are 
rare : 

1. Type, two standing figures; one radiated, of Augustus holding the 
patera in his right hand, and the hasta pura in his left; the other of Livia, 
having the patera in her right hand and two cornucopia; in her left. The 
Legend is: AUGUSTUS AUGUSTA. The frequent use of the patera in 
ancient coin-emblems is an evidence of the religious sentiment of the 
Romans. It was a broad, shallow bowl, and the vessel used for making 

. libations at a sacrifice, etc. (also, " a goblet or broad piece of plate to drink 
out of"), without which it would seem that no religious exercises could 
be conducted. In the changes that followed the introduction of Christi- 
anity into the Roman empire, the cross took the place of the patera. 

2. Type, a female figure standing, holding patera and cornucopia; as 
usual. Legend: CONCORDIA AUGUSTA. This rare and beautiful 
aureus was struck to indicate the perfect concord that had been estab- 
lished between Nero and his mother Agrippina, who appears on this coin 
as Dea Concordia. Her position, seated, implied that concord between 
the parties (the son and the mother) is lasting. She is depictured holding 
a patera, because from that the libation was poured out. 

3. Type, the emperor togated (wearing the toga or citizens' dress) and 
standing to the front. His head is radiated. In his right hand he holds a 
branch; in his left, a globe, with a victoriola surmounting it. Legend: 

This charming aureus was struck by command of Nero, in honor of 
Tiberius Claudius, by whom he had been adopted. The radiated head im- 
plies the decease and deification of the person thus honored. The titles 
Augustus and Germanicus are explained in our accounts of the Emperor 
Claudius. The branch denotes that peace prevailed through the universal 
empire, and that the temple of Janus had been closed. The globe, upon 
which the Gloriola sits, teaches that the whole world had been subdued 
and subjected to the Roman laws. 

4. There is a beautiful gold coin (aureus) similar to No. 4 on our coin- 

5: Types, the patera, tripus, simpulum or capeduncula and lituus. 
Legend (abbreviated): SACRED COOP IN OMN CONL SVPRA NVM 
EX SC; (supplied)— Sacerdos Cooptatus In Omnia Collegia Supra Numerum. 
Nero, who had been Princeps Juventutis, and was not yet Augustus, took 
the title " The Priest Chosen," etc., as seen on the coin; The words Ex 
Senatus Const/lto. so rare upon a gold or silver coin of the empire, are 
placed here to imply not that the coin was struck by order of the Senate, 
for the Senate had no control over those of the precious metals, but that 
the choice (cooptatus) was made by their order. 


G&im*Sheetg t 

&m&siQ&m AssQGistiQni at NumismstrntSi, 


[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome from 
B.C. 47 to a.d. 96, Galba, a.d. 68-69, was the seventh. The six who preceded 
him under this title were: Julius Caesar, b.c. 47-Ai; Augustus, b.c. 31- 
a.d. 14; Tiberius, 14-37; Caligula, 37-41; Claudius, 41-54, and Nero. 
54-68. The five who succeeded him: Otho, 69; Vitellius. 69; Vespasian, 
69-79; Titus, 79-81, and Domitian, 81-96.] 

ServiuB Sulpicius Galba. Beventh of the Caesars, Emperor of Rome a.d. 
68 to 69, was horn at Terracina, twenty miles southeast of Rome, Decem- 
ber 24, b.c. 3. The reigning Emperor was Augustus. His father was Sul- 
picius Galba, an orator of ordinary abilities, a humpbacked man ; Consul 
a.d. 22, who committed suicide from political disappointments a.d. 36. 
His mother was Mummla Achaica, great-granddaughter of Mummius, who 
destroyed Corinth b.c 146. At her death her husband married Livia 
Ocellina, a relative of Livia, wife of the Emperor Augustus, who adopted 
the subject of this sketch, and changed his name to L. Livius Occlla. 
which he bore at the time of his elevation to the purple. It was not con- 
sidered, however, that he was a relative of Augustus, whose family be- 
came extinct in the death of Nero. 

Galba early displayed such traits of character that both the Emperors, 
Augustus and Tiberius, assured him he would one day be at the head of 
the Roman world. His advancement, under such high patronage, was 
sure. Before attaining the legitimate age, he was invested with curule 
offices. He was Praetor a.d. 20, for which he had the province of Aqui- 
tania (southern France) assigned him. He was made Consul a.d. 33, and 
carried on a successful war in Germany. 

Upon the death of Caligula, January 24, a.d. 41, he was named as a 
candidate for the throne, but preferred living in a private station. In 
acknowledgment of this self-reserve, Claudius, the successor of Caligula, 
showed him much kindness and attention. 

A.D. 45 and 46 he was sent to the province of Africa, which had been 
greatly disturbed by the licentiousness of the military, and the incursions 
of barbarians. There he restored peace, restrained the soldiers, and 
acquired new honors. For these services he was endowed with the oraa- 
menta triianpIuUia, and the dignity of three priesthoods — the Quinde- 
cemviri, the SodalesTitii, and the Augustales. 

During the reign of Nero, a.d. 54 to 68, he lived in strict retirement, 
dreading to become the victim of that tyrant's suspicion. A.D. 61, Nero 
gave him the province of Hispania Tarrocon, which he governed for eight 
years. This brings us to the period when the death of Nero elevated Galba, 
at the advanced age of seventy years, to the throne of the Empire. 

The deposition of the wretch Nero, who had so long disgraced the pur- 
ple, was followed closely by his death. The sword which had destroyed 
so many was put to his own throat, and the Empire stood without a head. 
Galba, being in command in Spain, was warmly solicited by C. Julius 
Vindex to unite with him in an insurrection, which in a.d. 68 the latter 
was conducting against Nero., The messengers to Galba assured him that 
"he was the most eminent among the generals of the time, and the proper 
successor to Nero, whose doom was clearly impending." Vindex ex- 
horted him to arise and vindicate the rights of oppressed humanity. 

The old general, having already learned that emissaries of Nero were 
in Spain seeking to murder him, resolved at once to take the perilous 
step and place himself at the head of the Roman world. He assembled 
his troops, harangued them upon the cruelties of Nero, and was at once 
proclaimed Imperator. 

Organizing his forces, he gathered around him a council of elders in the 
manner of a Senate, and affirmed to all inquirers that he was acting only 
as the legate of S. P. Q. R. 

Upon the announcement of the death of Nero, Galba took the title of 
Caesar, and, accompanied by SaMus Otho, then governor of Lusitania, 
and afterward Emperor, went to Rome, where ambassadors from all coun- 
tries soon arrived to do him homage as their lawful sovereign. 

But here the better part of his history comes abruptly to an end. His 
good qualities failed him. .Severity and avarice, vices of old age, became 
prominent in his public life. Among the soldiers, whose suffrages had 
given him the crown, he introduced unpopular changes, and puniBhed 
with severity the slightest opposition. The donatives promised the mili- 
tary upon his accession were withheld, and various reports concerning his 
niggardly and miserly character were sedulously spread through Rome to 
increase the popular discontent. In addition to this, he was completely 
under the sway of three favorites, and the arbitrary manner in which he 

acted under their influence showed that the times were but little better 
for him than they had been for Nero. 

The first open outbreak, however, was among the legions of Germany, 
who seut word to the Praetorians at Rome that they disliked the Emperor 
who had been created in Spain, and that all the legion* should have a voice 
in the selection of Emperor. Similar manifestations were made by the 
legions in Africa. 

Having no heir, Galba adopted Piso Licinianus, a noble young Roman, 
as his coadjutor and successor, hoping thus to appease the discontent. 
But it rather increased it, particularly as Galba neglected the popular 
gifts customarily made by Emperors upon their accession. 

The end was not far off. Salvius Otho, who had expected the honor of 
the Imperial adoption, now secretly formed a conspiracy among the troops, 
and within six days after the event just named it broke out. Galba, from 
the first, despaired. Then, regaining courage, he went out to meet the 
rebels. But as he was carried across the forum in his sedan-chair, unable, 
from age and infirmity, to mount his horse, a troop of cavalry, lying in 
wait, rushed forward and cut him down near the Lacus Fortius. A pri- 
vate soldier took his head to Otho, who in the meantime had been pro- 
claimed Emperor by the Praetorian Guards; and the dishonored remains 
of Galba were buried by a private citizen in his own garden. 

The reiteration of the word Imperator upon the coins of Galba re- 
quires a paragraph here. The ancient forms of the word were Endoperator 
and Induparator. We have spoken of the custom of the Roman soldiers 
of hailing their general Imperator immediately after a victory. That 
everything in the theory of the Roman constitution was subordinate to 
military life need not be repeated. The declaration of Jesus (Luke xi, 
21. 22) applies most accurately to this people: " When a strong man armed 
keepeth his palace his goods are in peace; but when a stronger than he 
shall come upon him and overcome him, he taketh from him all his armour 
wherein he trusteth and divideth his spoils." This was the history of Rome, 
"the nation of the strong arm." By establishing permanent camps all 
around the extended frontiers of the Empire; by keeping movable forces 
always on foot; by enrolling every able-bodied freeman as a soldier and 
forcing him to service; by provoking nations to war and then subduing 
them and attaching them to the Empire, the office of a soldier was not only 
made honorable but the only sure field of promotion. This is seen either 
in work or type upon almost every coin of Rome. The spear; the parazo- 
niam (or general's staff); the Gate of the Camp (emblem of security); the 
laurel (badge of victory); the temple of Janus, emblem alternately of 
peace and war; the trophies; the figures of captives suggesting the same 
fierceness and cruelty of the soldiery that led them to mock and scourge 
Jesus before crucifying him, and to slay their prisoners rather than suffer 
them to escape (Acts xxvii, 47); — these and a host of attributions of the 
god Mars upon Roman coinage, prove how important the military profes- 
sion was deemed, and how honorable was the title of " Chief Soldier " 
(Imperator) when ascribed to the Emperor himself. 

When the legious gained a victory, then the soldiers, with shouts of 
joy, saluted their general by the title of Imperator. His victors wreathed 
their fasces with laurel, as did also the soldiers their spears and javelins. 
He immediately sent letters, wrapped round with laurel, to the Senate, to 
inform them of his success. The Senate decreed a thanksgiving to the 
gods and confirmed to the general his title of Imperator. 

The titles assumed or accepted by Augustus, and adopted as matters 
of course by his successors, included Princeps Senatus, Imperium Procon- 
sulare, Divus, Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, Augur, Tribunitia Potestas, 
Regimen Moruni, Censor, Senator, etc. etc., and finally Imperator. All 
these accrued to Galba when the Army and Senate had proclaimed him 
Emperor. The latter title then denoted the supreme command over the 
whole of the military force of the Empire, the right of making war and 
peace, and the power of life and death over all the citizens. This latter 
was derived from the most ancient theory that the general of the army 
had that, power over his soldiers, and that without appeal. It is easily 
seen, therefore, that the titular dignity of IMPERATOR would stand out 
prominently upon coins. 

The attributions of the goddess Vesta form favorite groups upon the 
Roman coinage. This goddess is usually seen upon the reverses of our 
specimens, seated upon a square throne, but sometimes standing. Her 
left foot is supported by a low stool; her right hand rests upon her lap 
and holds a patera. In her left hand she bears the hasta pura, her wand of 



divinity. The origin of this word, Vesta, according to Sir Isaac Newton, 
is from the Greek Hestia, a fire. Her worship was early introduced into 
Italy. Virgil describes Aeneas bearing from Troy the statue of Vesta and 
her sacred fire. Numa built the first temple to Vesta at Rome, at the foot 
of the Palatine hill, and appointed four priests, called Vestalia, whose duty 
it was to preserve the palladium, or statue of Pallas- Minerva, and to keep 
the sacred fire ever burning. 

The most affecting idea connected with this goddess is that of the sanc- 
tity of the domestic hearth {hestia), the /reside, the symbol of social 
union. Vesta was the goddess of virginity. At Rome six virgins, called 
Vestals, presided over her sacred flame. Her festival was celebrated in 
June and styled Vestalia. In the forum at Rome was a statue to the Stata 
Mater, so placed that she might protect the pavement from the effect of 
the fires which used to be made there in the night time. If one of her 
vestal virgins violated the vow of perpetual chastity the culprit was 
buried alive. 

All this, and more to the same effect, was suggested to a Roman when 
he took in his hand a coin of Galba and read upon it the attributions of 
the far-famed deity, Vesta. And, as the coins of a mintage went into every 
hand — the horny hand of mechanic and farmer, the scarred hand of the 
soldier, the hand of the delver in the sunless mine, of the hunter upon 
the mountains, of the dweller of the cities, of the mariner upon the 
rounded sea, and of the hermit in his cell,— few could be ignorant upon 
this or any other point connected with the State-religion. 



Of nine coins, in silver and bronze, of the Emperor Galba, from the illus- 
trations on the fourth page. 

[The student will observe in these Readings: First, That the size of 
a Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture. Second, That the 
metal is distinguished by an abbreviation, — AV (aururri) standing for gold; 
AR (argentum) for silver; AE (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, words in- 
discriminately used in Numismatics. Third, That there are few punctua- 
tion points on coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to facili- 
tate Readings. Fourth, That we do not reproduce the old forms of Greek 
letters here, but substitute modern type; and, Fifth, That these Readings 
are prepared as well for the use of Learners as experts.] 

No. 1, AE. This medallion is a piece of extraordinary elegance, and 
considering the brevity of Galba's reign (only seven months) the mint- 
master must have been put under extraordinary pressure to fashion the 
dies and perfect so large and beautiful a piece in so short a time. 

A Medallion in Roman currency bears I he same relation to a Coin as an 
official Medal made in the American mint does to a coin. Medallions were 
larger than pieces of money. They were prepared with more care than 
ordinary coins, and were used chiefly as gifts to the grandees of the nation, 
also for preservation in cabinets as monuments of the age and of the 
prince. Roman Medallions are rare and costly, and not found in many 
American collections. Not having been used for currency, they are ordi- 
narily in a good state of preservation. The types, devices and inscriptions 
upon them are all found upon coins of corresponding date. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the right; beardless; wearing 
the paludamentum. or general's cloak, buttoned on the right shoulder. 
The nose and chin, like those of Vitellius. are prominent. He is seventy- 
one years old. Inscription (abbreviated): SER SVLPI GALBA IMP 
CAESAR AVG; (supplied)— Sergius Sulpicius Galba Imperator Caesar 

Reverse. An Allocution scene. The Emperor standing upon a sua- 
gestum to the right; a foot soldier in front. Galba is addressing three 
soldiers, representatives of the Maniples of the cavalry, and of the Legion 
itself. These are distinguished by the standards they bear; one, display- 
ing an open hand, is the flag of the maniples, three of which made a co- 
hort; one, with a square flag or vexillum, represents the cavalry; the 
third, with the eagle, represents the Legion as a whole. The latter has a 
shield displaying fulmina (thunderbolts). The shield of the cavalry- 
soldier presents a protuberant umbo, or boss. Behind the Emperor 
stands the Commander of the forces, holding him by the right arm. The 
whole scene is expressed with much spirit. Inscription: ADLOCVTIO 
—"Delivery of Address." S. C, Senatus Consulto, implies that this me- 
dallion was struck "by Decree of the Senate," when Galba had addressed 
his troops upon their declaring him Imperator. It is thought that the 
person with his back to Galba is enforcing the Emperor's address upon 
the listeners. 

The attachment of the Roman troops to their standards was inspired 
by the united influences of religion and military honor. The Eagle which 
glittered in the front of the Legion was the object of their fondest idol- 
atry; nor was it esteemed less impious than ignominious to abandon that 
sacred symbol in the hour of danger. Tacitus styleB the standards Bello- 

rum dii, "gods of battles." In camp they were placed in a chapel by 
themselves, and, with the other deities, received the religious worship of 
the troops. In the military oath, the Roman soldier swore "never to 
desert his standard; to submit his own will to the command of his lead- 
ers, and to sacrifice his life for the safety of the Emperor and the Em- 
pire." This oath was taken with every circumstance of solemnity, and 
was annually renewed by the troops on the first of January of each year. 
The first cohort of the Legion, consisting of 1,105 soldiers, claimed the 
post of honor and the custody of the Eagle. 

No. 8, AE. A Remission coin of rare type. 
* Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the left. Features thin, care- 
worn and ghastly; yet the likeness agrees with that of others in the 
series. Beardless; bust undraped. 

It is not infrequent that while one side of a coin displays good art, 
the other is inferior. This proves that two sets of engravers, not equals 
in skill, worked upon the same piece. In such cases it is usually the 
Obverse that has the greater merit; but in the specimen before us the 
reader will perceive that the best skill is displayed upon the Revebse- 
die, which, so far as the architectural part is concerned, is handsomely 
executed. Inscription: " Sergius Galba Imperator Augustus." 

Reverse. A triumphal arch, above which are two horsemen to the left. 

The preceding Emperors had imposed some onerous tax, called the 
Quadrigessima ("fortieth part"), which Galba remitted; and such was 
the popular joy that the Senate was moved to order the present coin, 
acknowledging the Emperor's bounty to the citizens. Looking at these 
horsemen, the reader will recall the picture of the equestrian statue of 
Peter the Great, at St. Petersburg, Russia. Approaching from the left 
is a procession of four captives, with hands bound behind them. One 
of the four has entered the portico. Legend: QVADRIGENS REMIS- 
SAE,— intended, probably, for quadrigessimum remissae,— " For remit- 
ting the tax of the fortieth." S. C, Senatus consulto, in the exergue — 
" By Decree of the Senate." 

Much was written by Eckhel and Spanheim concerning this coin, and 
it cannot exactly be determined to what particular tax the remission 
refers; but whatever it was we know that Vespasian reimposed it, for 
he did this to all the taxes remitted by his predecessors, so that the 
popular joy was temporary enough, and nothing but coins remained 
to prove that there had been a relief. Reference to the history of Rome 
will show how burdensome were the taxes under which the people 

No. 3, AR. 

Obverse. Unlaureate head of Galba to the right. Hair cropped short; 
beardless; bust undraped. Inscuib^ion: " Imperator Sergius Galba Au- 

Reverse. A Civic Crown made of oak leaves and acorns. This was 
donated to Galba for preserving the life of a citizen. Virgil styles it the 
Civilis Quercus, as made of oak products. Legend (abbreviated): S P QR 
OB C S; (supplied) — Senatus Populusque Romanns ob Servatos Cives — 
"The Senate and Roman People, for saving citizens." 

The variety of crowns seen in the coins of Roman Emperors is not 
large. The simple laurel wreath sufficed to express the highest dignity. 
The radiate crown grew slowly into use. Iu the Diocletian era the gem- 
crowned coronet is seen. But as the municipal symbols are decorated 
with so many patterns, we make a list here of those that appear upon 
coins. Engravings of them are found upon the coin-sheet of Caligula: 

The Civic Crown (Corona Civica) was deemed by a Roman the 
highest reward he could receive. It was made of oak leaves and acorns, 
and given to one who had saved the life of a citizen. Upon coins it is 
usually expressed by the words OB CTVEM SERVATVM — " For pre- 
serving a citizen," within a wreath of oak leaves. When the man who 
wore this crown entered an assembly, the audience rose up as a mark 
of respect. 

The Mural Crown ( Corona muralis) was given to the man who first 
scaled the walls of a besieged city. 

The Naval Crown (Corona navalis) or classica, or rostrata, went for 
a naval exploit. 

The Siege Crown (Corona obsidimialis) was made of grass, and given 
to the general who released an army from a blockade. 

Camp Crown (Corona eastrensis or vallaris), to him who first entered 
the enemy's camp. This was made in form of palisade. 

Triumphal Crown (Corona triumphaXis). The name explains the 

Ovation Crown (Corona ovalis). This was given to a conquering gen- 
eral at an ovation. 

No. 4, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the right. Features, etc., as pre- 
viously described. Inscription (abbreviated): 2EPOYI rAABA ayto 
KAI5 2EBA— "To Sergius Galba. the Emperor Caesar, the Augustus." 
(Observe the substitution of Servius for Sergius.) 

Reverse. The head of Isls to the right, marked with the lotus-flower, 



emblem of Egypt. The arrangement of the hair is elaborate. The let- 
ters LA imply " Of the year 1," the first (and only) year of Galba's 
reign, viz. a.d. 68-9. 

No. 5, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the right. Features, etc., as pre- 
viously noted. Inscription: " Imperator Galba." 

Reverse. Two military figures facing each other. One bears a 
shield with two spears, the other a short javelin. Legend: GALLIA 
HISPANIA. Spain and Gaul are represented as about to join right hands, 
in sign of concord, because they first proclaimed Galba Emperor; for 
Gaul began to be tumultuous against Nero under Julius Vindex, and 
Galba was saluted Emperor while in Spain by almost all the cities of 
Spain and Gaul. 

In addition to this coin, there is another denarius with the word 
GALLIA for a Legend. This has the head of a female, before which 
are two wheat heads. Behind are a shield and two javelins. Another 
denarius has HISPANIA on the Reverse, with the female at full length; 
in her right hand, wheat heads and a poppy; in her left, a shield. The 
purpose of these two coins is similar to that of the first. 

No. 6, AE. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the right. Features aged and 
careworn. Inscription (abbreviated): IMP SER SVLP GALBA CAES 
AVG TR P; (supplied) — Imperator Sergius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Au- 
gustus; Tribunitia Potestate. The last expression signifies, "Exercising 
the Tribunitian Power." 

This title, TR P, which Roman Emperors valued so highly that it 
often appears upon coins struck as well in Greek as Latin, must be read 
in the ablative case — Tribunitia Potestate, "Exercising the Tribunitian 
Power." To understand the importance of the office we must refer to 
the celebrated insurrection by ihe plebeians, B.C. 493, and the grant made 
them then by the patricians, that henceforth they should have represent- 
atives of the tribes, or common people, styled Tribunes. The name 
was borrowed from a similar officer of the military. The persons of the 
Tribunes were made sacrosancti (sacred and inviolable). No patrician 
could be made a Tribune unless first adopted into a plebeian family. 
B.C. 130 a law was enacted that none should be made a Tribune save 
a Senator. The number of these popular representatives was ten. They 
were elected annually at the Comitia Tributa, and entered upou their 
office December 10. They wore no mark of dignity, and had only one 
officer, the Viator, to go before them. At judgment they sat on benches 
(smbsellia); but on all occasions they had the precedence, and every one 
was obliged to rise in their presence. Their power was simply negative, 
and was symbolized in the VETO — "I forbid it." 

Like all other men, the popular Tribunes accumulated power, and 
used it often tyrannically, even to ordering a Consul to prison. Their 
jurisdiction, however, was confined to the city of Rome and a mile 
(mille passuvm) around it. Their door3 were open day and night to 
receive the requests and complaints ot the wretched. To interrupt a 
Tribune while speaking was an offense that called for severe penalty. 
The first civil blood shed at Rome was B.C. 133, when the Gracchi 
brothers suffered death for their bold defense of the Tribunitian office. 

And now we see why the Emperors sought this office so eagerly. It 
made them the representatives of the people; made their persons sacro- 
sancti; gave them the right to call the Senate at pleasure; to assemble 
the people; to be appealed to in all cases, and gave them other impor- 
tant privileges. Augustus got the Senate to confer it upon him for life. 
Afterward, at the beginning of a reign, and upon other solemn occasions, 
this grant was renewed to his successors. They were then said to be 
Tribunitia Potestate donati; hence the years of their government were 
called " the years of their Tribunitian Power," which are found very 
often marked upon their coins. This, however, was not computed from 
the first day of January (as the Consulship), nor the 10th of December, 
as with Tribunes when popularly elected; but from the day on which 
they assumed the Empire. 

Augustus was, by decree of the Senate, invested with the Tribuni- 
tian Power for life, that he might lay anything he pleased before the 
Senate, as, previous to that time, no one could make a proposition to 
that body save the Consul. This grant was afterward made, as a matter 
of course, to his successors. 

The people, however, continued to elect Tribunes upon the earlier 
theory, and doubtless found them useful in representing their wants and 
interests to the despotic ruler above them; but they had only the 
shadow of their former power; or, as Pliny expresses it, inanem umbram 
et sine honore nomen. They seem to have retained this even to the time 
of Constantine the Great (a.d. 308-337), who abolished it, with other 
ancient offices, when he instituted a form of government upon the Ori- 
ental theory. 

In the coins the title is variably written TR P, TR POT, TRIB 
POT, etc. 
No. 7, AE. 

Obverse. Unlaureate head of Galba to the right. Features, etc., as 
in the preceding. Inscription (supplied): Sulpicio Galbae Augusto 
Imperatori Patri Patriae— "To SulpiciuH Galba; the Emperor; the Father 
of the Country." Placing names in the dative case is not common in 
Latin inscriptions. 

Reverse. A Temple standing in such relation to the eye that one 
side and end are visible; flight of steps to the vestibule. Legend: L CAN 
AGRIPPAE II VIR. The latter are read "Corinth." The sentence 
embodies the name of the Duiim Vir of the mint at Corinth, viz. Lucius 
Caninus Agrippa. This is found in other coins of the same period, one 
of which reads, " Rome and the Emperor." 

No. 8, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Galba to the right; aged and deeply 
wrinkled. Inscription (supplied): 2EPOYI TAABA AYTOKPATOPI 
KAIS 2EBA2T— "To Servius Galba, the Emperor Caesar Augustus." 

Reverse. The goddess l6is to the right, bearing upon her head the 
lotus flower, as No. 4. She was the principal genius, the tutelary deity 
of Egypt; the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus. She was to the 
Egyptians what Ceres was to the Greeks and Romans. Afterward Isis 
was made the equivalent to the Moon, as Osiris to the Sun. The letters 
LA refer, like No. 4. to the first year of Galba's reign. 

No. 9, AE. 

Obverse. The laureate head of Galba to the right. Beardless; wears 
the palndametum, as in No. 1. Inscription: " Sergius Galba Imperator 
Caesar Augustus." 

Reverse. Pallas, the elegant symbol of the Eternal City; a female 
sitting on a cuirass to the left. Right hand supported by hasta pura; 
crested helmet on head; left arm resting on the upper edge of her shield; 
right foot rests on helmet on the ground. In exergue, ROMA; in 
the field, S C — Senatus Consulto, "By Decree of the Senate." An accom- 
plished author gives these additional details of this beautiful coin: "The 
lower part of her shield rests upon other shields, by the side of which 
there is leg-armor (pcrea). Her clothes, reaching to the feet, are dis- 
played in rich folds at the left side. She has assumed the most graceful 
and elegant attitude, showing perfect ease and repose. The whole is a 
complete and artistic study." 

To compare the capacity of the great mint at Rome, in the time of 
Galba, with the various mints of the Uuited States, we give extracts from 
the official reports of 1876. A Senator had said there "is a limit to our 
ability to coin silver pieces, and mints cannot be improvised in a year." 
The director of the mint replies, " as the result of experience," that 
keeping everything in good repair, the capacity of all the mints for coin- 
ing small silver is about twenty-four million dollars per annum. In 
August, 1876, there was coined, in gold, 84,231,240; trade dollars, $557,- 
200; small silver, $2,346,610; minor coins, $17,700. Total, $7,152,250. All 
were kept running through the month to their utmost capacity and without 
interruption. The number of pieces was 8.839,562. Their weight was as 
follows: Gold — seven and three-quarters tons; silver — trade dollars, six- 
teen and three-quarters tons; small silver, sixty-four and one-half tons; 
minor coinage, two and one-half tons. 

The four pairs of coins figured at the bottom of the coin-sheet repre- 
sent the most ancient coinage of Aegina and Persia, and will be referred 
to in other sheets of this series. 

Besides the nine cuts given of Galba's mintage, we have descriptions of 
a number of denarii as follows: 

1. Boni Eventus—" Of the Fortunate Approach." The type is a male 
figure standing nude; in right hand a patera, in the left, wheat-headB. 

2. Concordia Provinciarnm — " The Harmony of the Provinces." Type, 
a female figure stolated, standing; in the right hand a branch, in left, a 

3. Fortuna Augusli — " The Fortunate of the Augustus." Type, the 
figure of Fortune, a female, standing; in the right hand a ship's helm, in 
the left, a cornucopia. 

4. Gallia — " Gaul." Type, the head of a female, before which are two 
wheat-heads; behind, a shield and two lances. 

5. Hispauia — "Spain." Type, a female figure; in her right hand, 
wheat-heads and poppies, in left, a shield. 

6. The same epigraph. Type, the head of a woman with two javelins. 

7. Pax Augusti — " The Peace of Augustus;" or, still better, "Peace, 
the tutelar deity of the Emperor." Type, a female standing; in right 
hand, a branch and a caducaeus, her left hand ou a lowered shield. 

8. Reslituta Numidia — . " Numidia Restored." Type, the head of a 
female with elegant necklace. 

9. Roma Renascens — '" The New-springing Rome." Type, a female 
helmeted, holding forth a Victoriola iu her right hand. 

10. Roma Victrix—" Rome the Conqueror." Type, the idealized figure 
of Rome (or Pallas) standing; in right hand abranch, in left a spear; at her 
right foot a globe. The Senate had solemnly pronounced Nero an enemy, 
and Roma is here represented as gaining an illustrious advantage through 
his death. 



Am@fiQ3iB! AsmQi&tiQni Qi Nuimmimatmtst 


[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Home from 
B.C. 47 to a.d. 96, Otho, a.d. 69, was the eighth. The seven who pre- 
ceded him under this title were: Julius Caesar, e.o. -17-44; Augustus, 
e.c. 31-a.d. 14; Tiberius, 14-37; Caligula, 37-41 ; Claudius, 41-54; Nero, 
54-68; and Galea, 68-69. The four who succeeded him, Vitellius, 69; 
Vespasian, 69-79; Titus, 79-81, and Domi.tian, 81-96.] 

Marcus Sulvius Otho, eighth of the Caesars, Emperor of Rome from 
January 15 to April 15, a.d. 69, was born at Ferentum, Etruria, April 28. 
a.d. 32. The reigning Emperor was Tiberius. His father was Lucius 
Otho, who held high trusts under the Emperor Tiberius, whom he resem- 
bled so closely that it was suspected he was his illegitimate son. He 
was Consul, a.d. 33, then Pro-Consul, etc. The mother of Otho was Albia 
Teretina, connected with many distinguished Roman families. 

The subject of this sketch, an Emperor of only three months' continu- 
ance, was a man of moderate stature, ill-made in the legs and effeminate 
in appearance. The description of him by Patin (vol. eclxxxviii, p. 99, Har- 
ris' 1 Cat.) is exhaustive. In ambitionibus nihil omisit. Homo nimiae ele- 
gantiae et mollitudinis, corporis studiosus, nam vulso corpore galericulo 
caplti propter raritatem capillorum adaptato et annexo ut nemo dignos- 
ceret; faciem quoque radere et pane madido linere consuevit a prima 
lanugine ne barbatus unquam esset. (" There was nothing wanting to 
his efforts. He was a man of excessive taste and softness, and careful of 
his person. For to his bald head, on account of the scarcity of hair, a peri- 
wig was fitted and fastened so well that nobody could detect it. He was 
also accustomed to scrape his face and to line it out with moist bread from 
the first down upon his chin; for he never had a beard.") It would be 
difficult to find even in a modern Court Journal, more attention to. silly 
trivialities than this writer (Suetonius) has given here. 

The deposition and self-murder of Nero left the world's Empire with- 
out a head. How many ambitious men conceived a hope of assuming it we 
shall never know. Four, however, are in the current of our coin-sketches, 
of whom Otho is the second. The man had been one of the companions 
of Nero in his debaucheries, till he was sent, about a.d. 58, as governor of 
Lusitania, a trust which he administered with credit during the last ten 
years of Nero's life. When Galba received the acclamation of Tmperator 
from the Spanish legions and set out for Rome, Otho attached himself to 
that aspirant, hoping to be adopted as his coadjutor and successor. From 
the great age of Galba, he knew the crown would soon be vacant, and 
fancied himself secure in the favor of the veteran soldier. 

But Galba was familiar with the baseness of Otho's character, and de- 
siring a more worthy partner and heir, selected L. Piso, a noble young 
Roman, and on the 10th of January, a.d. 69, designated him as the future 
Emperor. This sealed his fate. Otho at once organized a conspiracy 
which broke forth within six days. Galba was murdered and his bloody 
head brought to Otho, who had already been proclaimed Emperor by the 
Praetorian Guards. An astrologer had told him that one day he would 
rule the Roman world. His private affairs were in a ruinous condition. 
He was ready to promise everything to the troops, and stoop to anything 
that would secure for him 

"That glittering gaud, the Imperial Crown of Rome." 

Upon the same evening the Senate took the oath of fidelity to the new 
ruler. Sabinus, brother of Vespasian, was made praefeetus vrbi. Otho 
offered a sacrifice in the capitol, but enjoyed no favorable omens. The 
new Emperor devoted himself to the administration of public affairs, and 
gave hopes to the people that he would turn out better than had been pre- 
dicted. He was acknowledged Emperor by the governors of Mauritania, 
Carthage, and the rest of Africa. The legions in Dalmatia, Pannonia and 
Maesia took the oath of fidelity to him. He was recognized by Egypt, by 
Mucianus in Syria, by Vespasian in Palestine, by Gallia, Narbonensis, 
Aquitania and Spain. It speaks well for the condition of Roman roads 
and the rapidity of the posts that news could be received from such dis- 
tant points in so brief a period. 

But the deity, Nemesis, did not slumber. The man who had mounted 
the throne by the murder of his predecessor and friend was not destined 
to long life. He had a formidable opposition in the six veteran legions 
stationed in Germany on the Rhine, where Vitellius had been sent to take 
command by Galba himself in the month of December preceding. 

On the 3d of January, a.d. 69, Vitellius was proclaimed Imperator by 
his soldiers, and the gage of battle thrown into the arena. Everything 

favored him. His legions were so ardent as to desire to march to Rome 
even in midwinter. Two large armies were hurried forward. The Pro- 
vinces began to declare for Vitellius. 

Otho at once wrote Vitellius offering to give him all he could desire, 
even to a share of the throne, but his rival declined all terms of compro- 
mise, preferring the arbitrament of the sword. About the 14th of March, 
therefore, Otho moved at the head of his troops to meet the enemy. He 
had three excellent and experienced generals under him. He was master 
of the sea on the northwestern coast of Italy. Otho marched on foot at 
the head of his men in a plain military equipment. 

The hostile armies met on the Po, and the forces of Otho were totally 
defeated with the loss of forty thousand men. Then the two armies came 
to terms and accepted Vitellius as their Emperor. 

Otho still had large forces, but determined to make no further resist- 
ance; after settling his affairs, with the utmost coolness and deliberation 
he stabbed himself. His life had been dissolute and he died in despair. 
April 15, a.d. 69. when he was in his thirty-seventh year. His sepulcher 
was made at Brixellum, and Plutarch, who saw it as late as a.d. 80. says it 
simply contained his name without an epitaph. 

There are but few bronze coins of Otho; and this illustrates a fact in 
Roman coinage to which we again make allusion, viz.. that the striking 
of gold and silver mouey was the province of the Emperor alone, while 
those in the third metal were controlled by decrees of the Senate. And as, 
during the brief government of Otho, he was never fully at accord with the 
Senate, the coinage was mostly '-Imperial." that is, composed only of the 
precious metals. 

The ascription of Pontifex Maximus seems to have been a source of 
peculiar pride to Otho. In other places we have shown the immense power 
and immunity attached to this office. It was the chief ecclesiastical au- 
thority, that of the Pontifex Maximus, and made the union of church and 
state complete in the person of the Augustus. This condition, it is sug- 
gested by Mr. Hobler. agrees with that of Melchizedek. who is called, in 
Genesis xiv, 18, " King and Priest." 

The consecration to the office of Pontifex Maximus was performed 
with extraordinary pomp and ceremony, as it exalted the individual to be 
the sovereign judge and director of all public and private obligations of 
worship. All priests and sacrifices were henceforward under his inspec- 
tion. The Vestal Virgins stood within his selection and control. The 
charge of composing the ritualB of worship, appointing religious cere- 
monies, feasts and institutions, and digesting the public annals of the year, 
was equally under his care. He was astronomer of the State and regula- 
tor of the y,ear, for it was bis duty to see that the festivals appointed for 
certain days were celebrated in their respective times. Julius Caesar pre- 
ferred this office to all others, as his coins will show. The head of the 
Roman Catholic Church claims the ancient title, and, mutatis mutandis, 
enjoys the immunities of this office. Among the Mormons, who style them- 
selves "Latter-day Saints," the Pontifex Maximus, at this writing, ib 
Brigham Young, and the ecclesiastical prerogative has lost nothing in him. 

The figure of Fortuna (Good-luck) upon coins is represented sometimes 
with a rudder, because she is the deity who steers the affairs of life at her 
will; sometimes with a ball to represent the varying unsteadiness of for- 
tune. To this the poet Burns refers, in his memorable lines. 

"Though I to foreign lands must hie, 
Pursuing fortune's stiddery fta'." 

Fortuna sometimes appears with the horn of Aiualthea, as a symbol of 
her plentiful gifts. This was the goat that suckled Jupiter. She was 
translated to the skies, along with her two kids whom she had put aside 
to accommodate the infant deity, and as a reward for her kindness was 
made into stars, on the arm of the constellation Auriga. If any doubt the 
legend, the stars twinkle there nightly to rebuke his incredulity! The 
child Jove, having accidentally broken off one of the horns of the goat, 
made it into a drinking cup and ordained that it should ever be full to 
overflowing with whatever its possessor might wish. Thus it becomes a 
proper emblem in the hands of Fortuna. At Smyrna the statue of this 
deity was seen having upon her head a ball sustained by one hand, in the 
other the horn of Amalthea. 

The number of coins struck under the auspices of Otho, large as it was 
considering his brief government of three months, would have been in- 
creased tenfold in another term of the same length, as the preparations of 



the first quarter were large with the engravers. The place where the 
temple of Juno Moneta and the mint stood was formerly the site of the 
mansion of Marcus Manlius, who was cast from the Tarpeian rock, b.c. 
381. The mere stamping of the coin constitute the least part of the 
work. The time and space consumed are in the melting, refining and 
alloying of bullion, casting it into ingots of size suitable for the drawing 
into plates, annealing, cutting, assorting, weighing, counting, etc. After 
•every process is complete and the rolled slips are ready for cutting out the 
planchets (coin-blanks or flans), only one half the area can be utilized, the 
other half going back into the melting pot in the form of clippings. 

Among the more pleasing and cheer-inspiring devices impressed upon 
the coins of the period was that of Hope (Spes). In the popular anxieties 
that moved every heart, in the frequent changes of rulers and the horrid 
" wars hateful to mothers," a mintage of coins, say a hundred thousand 
or two, with the well known attributions of Spes,— a sprightly young 
maiden tripping lightly and looking straight forward — could not fail to 
awaken the hope expressed in the legend. In her left hand she holds up 
her robes that in her message to sorrowing hearts she may not be impeded. 
In her right hand she has a flower-bud, beautiful expression of Hope. So 
well-known was this figure upon coins that we sometimes find it without 
an accompanying legend. There was a temple in Rome dedicated to Spes, 
afterward burnt by lightning. Upon a coin of Hadrian we have SPES P R, 
— " The Hope of the Roman People." 

Commenting upon the popular effect produced by impressing such 
emblems upon money of the nation, we add that in all times the human 
heart is affected by the same passions, chilled by the same griefs, warmed 
with the same joy, struck substantially by the same hopes and fears. This 
fact is as necessary to be kept in the mind of a numismatist as a scholar 
of any other class. The Roman government knew as well how to move 
the patriotism, awaken the vengeance, and inspire the hopes of its people 
by a coin as Napoleon the Great by a bulletin. 



Of five coins, silver and bronze, of the Emperor Otho, from the illustra- 
tions on the fourth page. 

[The student will observe in these Readings: First, that the size of a 
Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture. Second, that the 
metal is distinguished by an abbreviation, — AV (aurum) standing for 
gold; AR (argentum) for silver; AE (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, 
words indiscriminately used in Numismatics. Third, that there are few 
punctuation points on Coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers 
to facilitate Readings. Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms 
of Greek letters here, but substitute modern type; and, Fifth, that these 
Readings are prepared as well for the use of Learners as experts.'] 

No. 1, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Obverse. The unlaureate head of Otho to the right; beardless; bust 
undraped; hair thick and bushy, confessing its artificial character. In- 
scription: 2A OSHNOS KAIZ 2EBA2TOY. If the SA stands for Sulvius 
this may read, "Of Sulvius Otho Caesar Augustus." 

Reverse. A mountain; above it the word KAI5APEA2. The mixture 
of Greek and Latin letters in these words is barbarous, and leaves the mean- 
ing uncertain. Below is the mutilated word ET. - - - for ETOY2— 
" Of the year," the numeral 1 being understood. 

Mountains are common devices upon coins, but what particular 
eminence is indicated is not clear; whether Acrorinthus, Argaeus, Aven- 
tinus, Casius, Dyndimus, Eryx, Gerizim, Ida, Libanus, Olympus, Paneus, 
Rhodope, Sipylus, Taurus, or Vesuvius, all of which are found upon coins. 

No. 2, AR. 

Obverse. The unlaureate head of Otho to the right; hair curiously 
arranged in front, proving the Roman wig-makers no experts in this art; 
beardless; bust undraped. Inscription (abbreviated): IMP M OTHO 
CAESAR AVG TRP; (supplied) — MarcuB Otho Caesar Augustus Tribu- 
nitia Potestate — " Wielding the Tribunitian Power." 

Reverse. Victory moving to the right, with her customary attributions, 
viz., a palm-branch in left hand and laurel wreath in right. Legend: 
VICTORIA OTHONIS — " The Victory of Otho" (or, " The goddess Victory 
tutelar of Otho "). 

This refers to the victory won by the. soldiers of Otho over Vitellius. 
The historian Suetonius writes, "he obtained three trifling victories," 
though he was afterward overwhelmed in one. 

No. 3, AE. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Otho to the right; beardless; bust not 

draped. Inscription (mutilated): IMP M OTO CA "the Emperor 

Marcus Otho Caesar," etc. 

Reverse. A laurel crown inclosing simply the letterB S. C, for Sen- 
atuB Consulto — " By Decree of the Senate." 

Patin, the celebrated numismatist of the seventeenth century, says of 

this coin: "I wonder at the oversight (mendum) of the mint-master (mon- 
etarius) who left out the letter H in the name of Otho. But this ought not 
to throw suspicion upon the antiquity of the coin, since no internal evi- 
dence is wanting in it." 

No. 4, AR. 

Obverse. The unlaureate head of Otho to the right; hair presents the 
peculiarly crisp appearance in Nos. 1 and 2, due to his wearing a periwig; 
beardless; bust undraped. Inscription: "The Emperor Otho Caesar 
Augustus; exercising Tribunitian Power." 

Reverse. An Eques galloping to the right, his pallium flying in the 
wind behind him; with a spear vibrating in his right hand, he is striking 
at some object in front. The group is artistically conceived. Legend 
(abbreviated): PONT MAX; (supplied)— Pontifex Maximus— " The High 

This coin was struck to record the story of the expedition made by 
Otho against Vitellius. It is Otho himself who is depictured rushing as if 
against the enemy with a vibrating spear, for so are expeditions noted 
down in the coins of the Caesars. But this particular expedition, says 
Tacitus, was wretchedly and too hastily entered upon. 

In another coin of this class, with the same legend, is a stolated female 
standing, with wheat-ears in her right hand; in her left, a cornucopia. 
Another has an Annona scene, pointing out the diligence of Otho in pro- 
curing corn for the people of Rome. The same historian writes: "He 
made money out of the hunger and poverty of the common people by 
selling provisions." Another coin of this class has the same stolated figure, 
with a pair of scales in the right hand, and a cornucopia in the left. This 
figure is Justice. The scales in her right hand imply that Bhe weighs all 
things by the standard of truth. The cornucopia in her left teaches that 
through her is the abundance of all things. Otho chastised his soldiers 
on account of their sedition at Rome, which punishment they cheerfully 

Two other coins of this class present still further variations. In one is 
the stolated woman holding out a branch of olive in her right hand. Here 
she represents Peace. In the other coin she has the patera in her right 
hand, in her left the spear. In coins of Hadrian (a.d. 117-138), Justice is 
represented by these attributions; and in coins of Gordianus Pius (a.d. 
238-244), Military Concord. The patera, from which sacred things were 
poured out to the deities, implies that while Justice flourishes and Con- 
cord remains unshaken, an abundance of all things is yielded to men. 

Another coin of Otho has for a Legend, Pax Orbis Terrarum,— "The 
Peace of the Universal Empire." Otho, in spite of his forcing civil war 
upon Vitellius, sought to perform his office in the interests of peace. 
When no other external war was troubling the people, after repressing the 
Sarmaticans, he struck this coin expressing unbroken peace. Why he did 
not close the Temple of Janus, as Nero did a few years before, does not 
appear. Perhaps he did. In the coin last mentioned, Peace stands look- 
ing to the left, with a long caducaeus on her left arm; in her right hand an 
olive branch. 

Another coin of largest size, a Greek Imperial, is described with "the 
Emperor Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus " upon the obverse, and "of the 
year One " on the reverse, with an Eagle, on extended wings, bearing a 
wreath in its beak. The royal bird stands on a branch of laurel. This was 
struck at Antioch, in Syria, as the branch of laurel denotes. For the 
laurel (says that reliable numismatist, Vaillant) was sacred to Apollo, 
tutelar deity of Antioch. And in the great contests of a.d. 68-69 Syria 
adhered to Otho, following the lead of their ruler Mucianus. In many 
cities of Syria the Eagle was the symbol of Empire, and the laurel the 
emblem of Antioch. 

There are no genuine coins of Otho in First Bronze, so far as yet dis- 
covered, although some forgeries are reported extant. Those struck at 
Antioch are Second Bronze, and the remainder are aurei and denarii, all 
coined at Rome. Mr. Hobler suggests that the ancient Province of Lu- 
sitania, Portugal, would be a good field of research for coins of Otho, as he 
was Governor there for some three years, and colonial coins may have 
been struck there. When he heard of the death of Nero, he melted down 
all his gold and silver plate, converted it into coin, and went with his 
whole fortune to the aid of Galba. The questions arise, Whose dies did 
he use in thus increasing the coinage? Were they Nero's or Galba's? How 
did he get possession of official dies at all? Many queries of this class 
remain to excite a steady interest in numismatic res. 

No. 5, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Otho to the right; beardless; bust un- 

Reverse. The figure styled Canopus, an Egyptian emblem of plenty, 
to the right. In front, the letters LA, for AYKABANT02 I — " Of the year 
One" of Otho's reign, viz. a.d. 69. 

The brief and troubled reign of Otho explains the parcity of his coins. 
Two hundred years ago it was denied by some numismatists that any coins 
of this Prince were extant. But Patin, whose researches into all classes 
of monumental evidences of the period were systematic and thorough, and 



whose investigations, particularly in the science of coins, appear to excel 
those of other men, gives indubitable evidence to the contrary. He points 
out coins of Otho in all the great Numismatic collections of that period — 
in the extraordinary museum of Queen Christina, of Sweden, formed at 
Rome; in the cabinet of Leopold, Prince Medici; in that of Francis, Gott- 
fried ("a royal thesaurus, and a man by whose words antiquarians are 
accustomed to swear!"); in the large gathering of the great Duke of 
Etruria; in that of Seguin, almost the father of numismatical science, and 

So clear was the proof collected by the enthusiastic Dr. Patin, that 
since his day the controversy under this head has not been renewed. 
Doubtless other debates concerning coin-history now in progress will be 
closed by discoveries that are making under the cant name of "finds." 

Very common on the coins struck in Egypt is that singular shape of the 
human head placed on a kind of pitcher. This deified pitcher is said to 
refer to a contest between some Persian and Egyptian priests as to which 
of their deitieB had superiority. The Egyptians declared that [a single 
vase, sacred to Serapis, would extinguish the whole power of the Persian 
deity of fire. The experiment was tried, and the wily Egyptian boring 
holes in the side of the vase and stopping them with wax, afterward filled 
the vessel with water, which, gushing through the holes as the wax melted, 
extinguished the Persian deity. Hence the vase was deified ! 

The title of Pontifex Maximus, " High Priest." is often seen upon the 
imperial coins. The abbreviations are, P M, PONTIF MAX, P MAX; 
sometimes only PONT, or PONTIF, etc., the word Maximus being under- 

The existence of some four hundred religious temples at Rome devoted 
to the various gods of the Pantheon, demanded very numerous corps of 
priests (Sacerdotes). The priests of each temple or deity were usually 
collected into corporations (collegia), many of which were instituted very 
early in the history of the nation. These were the Luperci, Curiones, 
Haruspices; priests assigned to particular gods (flamines), as the Vestal 
Virgins, the Salii, Augurs, Feciales, etc. During the republic the person 
in charge of these numerous bodies was called Bex Sacrorum. 

The first rank of priests was the Pontifices, of which Numa himself 
(B.C. 700) was Pontifex Maximus, High Priest, or Supreme Pontiff. All 
the others, even the Vestal Virgins, were under control of the P. M. He 
had the superintendence of all religious matters, the arrangement of the 
calendar, the regulation of the festivals, and of the sacred rights connected 
with them. It was as P. M. that Julius Caesar reformed the calendar by 
adding ninety days to the year, and thus correcting the immense error 
into which chronologists were falling. And it is worthy of note that the 
Pope, Gregory XIII, who made the next reformation in the calendar, a.d, 
1582, did it in his capacity as Pontifex Maximus. 

The Pontifex Maximus could not be cited before any tribunal, and held 
his office for life. His dress was a robe bordered with purple (roba prae- 
texta) ; a woolen cap of a conical shape (tutulus vel galerus) with a tasBel 
(apex) on the top, a small rod wrapped around with wool. He lived in 
public buildings on the Sacra Via. 

Now we understand why the Emperors desiderated this office to which 
were attached so many prerogatives. Augustus first undertook it as 
Emperor, and his successors followed his example until Gratian (a.d. 367) 
abrogated the office itself. With the control of all the colleges of priests 
of every name and rite as Pontifex Maximus; with the whole popular 
representation vested in him as TR P; with the great immunities and 
privileges attached to him as Consul; with the prerogatives of Censor; 
with the authority as IMP, which admitted of no appeal, it is not to be 
wondered at that even such infamous wretches as Tiberius, Caligula and 
Domitian could sit safely upon their thrones, subject to no chances save 
those of domestic cabals. 

Gibbon says the Pontiffs were chosen among the most illustrious of 
the Senators, and the office of Supreme Pontiff (Pontifex Maximus) was 
constantly exercised by the Emperors themselves. They knew and valued 
the advantages of religion, as it is connected with civil government. They 
encouraged the public festivals which humanize the manners of the peo- 
ple. They managed the art of divination as a convenient instrument of 
policy, and they respected, as the firmest bond of society, the useful per- 
suasion that either in this or in a future life, the crime of perjury is most 
assuredly punished by the avenging gods. 

This scarcity of coins of Otho is not alone due to the brevity of his 
reign. Others after him, whose government was limited to periods equally 
brief, were honored by such an outpouring of money from all the mints, 
metropolitan and provincial,— such a deluge of bronze coinage that there 
is no difficulty in making up cabinets rich and full. Neither does the fact 
that so many contestants sought the throne during the period, explain 
the parcity of Otho's coinage. The true reason strikes in a monetary 
law of the Empire, that while the Emperor controlled the mintage in gold 
and silver, no bronze coinage could lawfully be struck without an order from 
the Senate; and as Otho was never on good terms with that body in all his 
brief career, the supply of "the people's money," the cheap money in 

bronze, was cut short. We shall see that as soon as Vespasian sat him- 
self squarely on the throne of the Empire, this class of coinage became 

We have space here for an account of the organization of that vast 
manufactory of coins, the Mint of the Romau Empire. 

At the capital city of each province there was an Argentaria, or local 
mint, with the offices, treasure, machinery, guards and appliances as at 
Rome, but on a smaller scale. These received their dies, or at least the 
obverses, directly from Rome; the dies for the reverses were often of 
domestic manufacture. This explains what all coin-students have noticed, 
that often the style of art seen in the latter is inferior to that in the 
former. They called the officers of the mint the Monetaria Duumviri, or 
moneyers. This include, in a general sense, all classes of workmen em- 
ployed in and about the mint. So numerous were these that, in an insur- 
rection which occurred in the Central Mint at Rome, during the reign of 
Aurelian (a.d. 270-275), it cost the lives of seven thousand soldiers to re- 
press it. The coin-emblems of the mint are the Dea-e Pecuniae usually seen, 
three on a coin, standing, heads to the left, with overflowing cornucopiae 
on left arm, a pair of scales in righ't hand, and (sometimes) a heap of ore 
at the foot of each. The number three represents the three standard 
metals used in the mint, viz., gold, silver and copper, of which the com- 
pound metal bronze was made. 

Ou the coins of Julius Caesar, Augustus and Tiberius, we find the 
names of the moneyers designated. This office of Master of the Mint was 
continued to a late period, but disappears from the coins. At Rome he is 
called Magistrates of the three moneyers. His business was to procure 
gold, silver and copper of improved material and just weight, of which 
money shall be cut and stamped. As the name denotes, there were always 
three at a time, but how selected, when changed, what rewards and honors 
were rendered, etc., we are not informed. 

At first the coins of gold and silver were as pure as the art of the 
assayer could devise. Lacking the improved processes of modern times, 
his skill is yet seen in the high condition of his gold and silver, 940-1000ths 
pure. The first money made at Rome was under Serrius Tullius, about 
B.C. 573. This was bronze; many of the pieces being so large as to weigh 
. 4,000 grains=9 oz. nearly. Three hundred and four years later, Fabius 
Pictor coined the first silver; sixty-tree years later (viz. 206), the first gold 
was coined by that people. Previous to those periods, Greek coins were 
used by the Romans. The term Moneta (money) originated in the fact 
that the coinage waB done in the temple of Juno Moneta (Juno the Ad- 
monisher). The method of stamping was primitive enough. One of the 
dies was fixed firmly, face upward, in a wooden block. The other die 
was attached to a hand-punch. The planchet (or button), at a soft heat, 
was laid square upon the fixed die. The other was held firmly upon the 
planchet, and a sinewy slave with sledge-hammer beat strong and repeated 
blows upon the hand-punch, until the impression was made. The con- 
trast between this and the American mint in full blast is not merely in the 
quantity of the work, but also the quality; for whereas a million coins may 
be turned out in a modern mint with no appreciable difference in the 
depth of impression and sharpness of the work, in an ancient mint no two 
coins have the same finish; very few have good impressions; with the 
majority the punch has slipped from its place, or being a little canted over, 
one edge of the coin is more deeply impressed than the other. 

As to relative values of metals, Julius Caesar, as the head of the mint, 
exchanged gold for silver at nine for one. A little later the ratio was 
twelve for one. In the time of Constantine the Great, about a.d. 325. 
fourteen for one. In modern times, since the destruction of the Asiatic 
mines, the proportion is fourteen and seventeen to one. 

The engravings occupying the lower half of the coin-sheet of Otho are: 
1. A sepulchral monument of the Romans. 2. The Moles Hadriani at 
Rome. 3. The Columna Rostrata Duilii. 4. Various patterns of head- 
dresses of Roman ladies. 5. The arrangement of s Roman Legion in order 
of battle. 5. The formation of the Roman forces styled a Testudo. 7. 
Roman chariot races. These serve to explain mumismatic references 
throughout this series. 

The Rostra-column named in the last paragraph was erected b.c. 336, 
iu honor of a victory achieved by C. Maenius over the Antiates. The 
modern word rostrum, applied to the platform from which a public speaker 
addresses his audience, is derived from it. The victorious Maenius, sur- 
named Antiaticus, attached the brazen beaks {rostra) of the captured ships 
to the forum from which popular harangues were made, and a pillar was 
erected (Oolumna Maenia) in his honor, as is denoted in our engraving. 
We have coins of this C. Maenius but spelled Maianius, by which name 
the old numismatist Patin has distinguished the Gens (Maiania Gens). 

The Moles Hadnani ("Hadrian's Sepulcher") was erected by that 
monarch about a.d. 125. It exceeded in size and solidity all regal tombs 
in Rome. It stood at the foot of the Vatican Mount, near the Tiber. It 
was encased in marble, and elevated by numerous stories. Previous to 
this reign, the bodies of emperors were usually deposited in the sepulcher 
built by Augustus about a.d. 10, in the Campus Martins. 


America® Ass&oJGiti&m ei NamismatistSt 


[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome from 
B.C. 47 to a.d. 96, Vitellius, a.d. 69, was the ninth. The eight who pre- 
ceded him under this title, were: Julius Causae, b.c. 47-44; Augustus, b.c. 
31-a.d. 14; Tiberius. 14-37; Caligula, 37-41; Claudius, 41-54; Nero, 
54-U8; Galba, 68-69; and Otho, 69. The three who succeeded him: Ves- 
tasian, 69-79; Titus, 79-81, and Domitian, 81-96.] 

Aulus Vitellius, ninth of the Caesars, Emperor of Rome from January 
3 to Decemher 21, a.d. 69, was born (place unknown) September 24, a.d. 15. 
The reigning Emperor was Tiberius. The name of his father was Lucius 
Vitellius, who, by the arts of flattery, gained considerable promotion. He 
was Consul a.d. 34, and twice afterward; also governor of Syria. At his 
death he was honored by a public funeral and statue, with the fulsome 
unflinching conscientiousness!"). His mother's name is not preserved. 
His brother. Lucius, was Consul a.d. 48. and lost his life in 68. 

The subject of our sketch possessed some knowledge of letters and 
eloquence. According to Suetonius he had few graces of person, being 
"a man of enormous stature, rubicund countenance, obeBC stomach, and 
of such voracious appetite (scrrdida gula) that neither in the sacred rites 
nor upon a journey could lie temper it, but would even snatch from the 
altars the consecrated bread and flesh, and around the cook-shops by the 
roads would devour the fish, burnt, old and half-eaten." It was particu- 
larly observed that he was fond of oysters. Pleasant details, those of the 
court-gossips of the first century! His best qualities consisted in skill at 
gaming and chariot-driving. The greater part of the youth of this hopeful 
" whip and sharper " was spent in the court of Tiberius at Caprea, an 
island off the coast of Campania, chiefly known in history as the abode of 
that, imperial monster, and the scene of his infamous debauchery. The 
present writer passed Caprea February, 1868, on his way to the Orient. 
It was occupied as a place of exile by the illustrious Garibaldi. In that, 
stew of iniquity the Seraglio of Tiberius, the subject of our sketch, signal- 
ized himself as a flatterer, in imitation of his father, and upon the murder 
of Tiberius ingratiated himself successively with Caligula (who admired 
his skill as a charioteer); with Claudius (who coveted his knowledge of 
gaming), and with Nero (who found use for his proficiency in music). 
A.D. 48 he was Consul with his brother Lucius; then Pro-Consul in 
Africa for a year, and the next year Legatus there under his brother 
Lucius, in which two stations he is said to have behaved with in- 

The death of Nero and the elevation of Galba led to further advance- 
ments, for, to the surprise of many. Galba gave him command of the 
legions in Germany. He left Rome with his affairs so embarrassed that 
he was compelled to put his wile Galeria Fundana and his children in 
lodgings, and to rent out his house. The importunity of his creditors was 
met by giving security to some and instituting unjust proceedings against 
others. When he became Emperor he compelled his creditors to give up 
their securities, comforting them with the remark that they should be 
content to have their lives spared! 

Vitellius was made Emperor by his soldiers January 3, a.d. 69. Otho, 
who assumed the purple at Rome on the death of Galba, January 15, wrote 
to Vitellius, upon hearing the intelligence from Germany, and offered to 
share the government with him. This proposition, however, was declined. 
The armies of the two contestants met on the Po about the 12th of April, 
69, and after a terrible contest the forces of Otho gave way with the loss 
of forty thousand men. The two armies then joined in fealty to Vitellius, 
and on the 15th of the same month Otho committed suicide. Vitellius 
proceeded slowly to Rome, which he entered in July. 

The praefect of the city, Sabinus, brother of Vespasian, took the oath 
of allegiance to Vitellius, in which he was followed by the soldiery there; 
and the Senate, as a matter of course, decreed to him all the honors which 
previous Emperors had enjoyed,— honors represented by PM, TRP, CENS, 
COS, etc., initials that concealed all the prerogatives of despotism. All 
the Empire submitted to him ; even Muciaous, governor of Syria, and Ves- 
pasian, who was conducting the Jewish war, made their legions take the 
oath of fidelity to Vitellius. 

The rule of Vitellius opened well. He pardoned hjs opponents, with but 
few exceptions. He conferred the title of Germanicus upon his young 
son, with the insignia of imperial dignity. He conferred the title of Au- 
gusta upon his mother. On the 18th of July he assumed the office of 
Pontifex Maximus. He even paid honors to the memory of the dishonored 

Nero. He confiscated no man's property, neither disturbed any persons in 
the enjoyment of the gifts they had received from his predecessors. 

The crying fault of Vitellius has already been shown up, — he was an epi- 
cure, a glutton. His chief amusement was the table, on which he spent 
enormous sums of money, and this made him one of those spendthrifts 
particularly obnoxious to the Roman people. His end was fast approach- 

Although, as above stated, the soldiers of Syria, Palestine and Egypt 
had taken the oath of fidelity to Vitellius, this was only upon the command 
of their generals. The forces in the east were plotting to make an Imper- 
ator among themselves, and on the 1st of July those at Alexandria, in 
Egypt, set the example by proclaiming Vespasian. Thus, within a little 
more than a year, the Roman Empire witnessed the death of Nero, the 
accession and death of Galba and Otho, the accession of Vitellius and the 
proclamation of Vespasian. 

The new Emperor was speedily recognized by all the East. Then the 
Illyrian legions entered northern Italy and declared for Vespasian. The 
fleet was treacherously delivered up to that general by their admiral, and 
the first commanders sent against him all proved unfaithful to their trust. 

About the 26th of October the armies joined battle near Bedriacum, 
and those of Vitellius were defeated. On the 18th of December the Em- 
peror left the palace in the dress of mourning with his infant son, and 
declared before all the people, with tears, that he renounced the Empire. 
Receiving some encouragement from the bystanders he made one more 
rally, and a contest ensued in the heart of the city. The Capitol was 
burnt, and Sabinus, brother of Vespasian, was killed. He attempted to 
arm the slaves and the populace. Rome was filled with tumult and blood- 

The Emperor was taken in an obscure part of the palace, having gorged 
himself at his last meal. He was led through the streets with every cir- 
cumstance of ignominy, and dragged to the Geinoniac Scalae, where the 
body of Sabinus had been exposed. There he wa6 killed with repeated 
blows. His head was carried about the city and his body cast into the 
Tiber. But it was afterward interred by his wife, lie was fifty-seven 
years of age. and reigned a year lacking ten or twelve days. His brother 
and infant son were put to death. 

In examining the attributions and legends that mark the reverses of the 
coins of Vitellius, the eye falls with surprise upon that of Pax (Peace). 
With what joyful surprise must it have met the eyes of the millions who 
struggled with each other to examine the coins of the new Emperor, as 
one in these times would look at a public proclamation. For coins were 
made by the Senate and the Emperor, mediums of intelligence of current 
news. True, the information thus communicated was such as " the powers 
that, be " chose to impart. The Church of Jesus which was in the iron 
grasp of the heathen, and whose blood cried aloud to God daily for ven- 
geance, found nothing upon coins to console them. The down-trodden 
nations oppressed with the yoke of Rome looked in vain for any comfort 
to them. Yet to the freemen of the Empire, the numismatic intelligence 
of Pax missa per orbem sent a thrill of joy, and we may imagine one uni- 
versal shout of gladness go up as these peace-coins were distributed 
throughout the vast Empire. 

In mythology we learn that Pax was honored with an altar at Athens. 
At Rome Claudius began a magnificent temple to this deity in the Forum, 
which was completed and dedicated by Vespasian. This was consumed by 
Are under the wretched Commodus (a.d. 180-192). The statue of Pax 
represents her as a matron holding forth ears of wheat in her hands and 
crowned with olive, laurel, sometimes roses. Her particular symbol was 
the Caducaeus. 

Since the reign of Augustus we vainly search the coins for the legend 
so common upon his, expressed in these abbreviations — III VIR AAAFF. 
What a puzzle to young numismatists! ''Triumvirs for melting and strik- 
ing gold, silver and bronze " (Triumviri auro argento acre flando feriundo). 
Save upon Colonial coins and notedly the Imperial Greek, it is rare to see 
the name of a mint-master or Praetor upon coins as late as this. 

The rapidity with which Vitellius degenerated from a brave and active 
soldier to the glutton who made a god of his ruling lust (sua cuique deus 
fit dira cupido, — Virgil) is one of the mysteries of our lower nature. 
Elagabalus, one hundred and fifty years later, exhibits the same in- 
famous degeneracy. Even Alexander behaved more like a lunatic than a 
sensible man after his conquests were ended. Had he survived for a long 




life he would probably have been an implacable tyrant. Examining the 
dignified, grave and massive features of Vitellius, we ask ourselves into 
what kind of a demon he would have been transformed, had his rule ex- 
tended tor a term of years! The record of his brutal atrocities, confined 
to the few months of his empire, would serve one oriental despot of the 
present day for half a lifetime. 

The attributions of Neptune upon coins of this period excited peculiar 
interest in the minds of those Roman people who resided in the inner 
provinces, far from the sea. For Rome by this time had become a mari- 
time power, able by the number of her ships to transport the largest 
armies to any scene of war in the briefest period. This fact was commu- 
nicated to the people by the figure and attributions of the marine deity, 
Neptune. lie was the son of Saturn and Rhea, the brother of Jupiter and 
Juno, and one of the most ancient divinities of Greece. Like Jupiter, he 
is represented of a serene and majestic aspect, with strong and muscular 
form, bearing in his hand the three-prong trident, symbol of his power. 
Dolphins and other marine objects accompany his images. At Rome the 
temple of Neptune stood in the Campus Martina, not far from the Septa. 
In his festival the people formed umbrae (tents) of the branches of trees 
and sat under them. When a Roman commander sailed out with a fleet, 
he first offered up a sacrifice to Neptune, which was thrown into the sea. 
And all this was well understood by the people into whose hands a coin of 
Vitellius came impressed with one or more of the attributions of Neptune. 

A brief estimate of the coins of the Roman Emperors that were pre- 
served in the cabinets of Europe as far back as 1784, will fitly close this 
theme. The figures are furnished by the author of '• Essay on Medals " of 
that date: Of aurei (golden coins), 3,000; silver, 6,000; bronze. 30,000. The 
Abbe Rothelin had secured for his own cabinet no less than 1,800 coins of 
Probus (A.D. 276-282), no two having the same reverse. 


Of thirteen coins, silver and bronze, of the Emperor Vitellius, from 

the illustrations on the fourth page. 

[The student will observe in these Readings: First, that the size of a 
Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture. Second, that the 
metal is distinguished by an abbreviation,— -AV (aurum) standing for gold; 
AR (argentum) for silver; AE (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, words in- 
discriminately used in Numismatics. Third, that there are few punctuation 
points on Coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to facilitate 
Readings. Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms of Greek 
letters here, but substitute modern type; and, Fifth, that these Readings 
are prepared as well for the use of Learners as experts.] 

No. 1, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Vitellius to the right; beardless; features 
rugged, heavy, aged. He is about fifty-three years old. Inscription 
(abbreviated): A VITELLIVS AVG IMP GERMAN; (supplied)— Aulus 
Vitellius Augustus Imperator Germanicus — ■' Aulus Vitellius Augustus 
Emperor Germanicus." 

Reverse. Jupiter, chief of the gods, seated in his temple to the left. 
Inscription (abbreviated): I O MAX CAPITOLINVS; (supplied)-Jupiter 
Optimus Maximus Capitolinus,— "The Capitoline Jupiter; the Be6t; the 

The history of this coin expresses the peculiar feeling of worship enter- 
tained by the Romans. The soldiers had burned the temple of the Capi- 
toline Jupiter while besieging the brother of Vespasian (Sabinus) in the 
citadel. Vitellius commanded a representation of the temple to be struck 
on coins, as if he intended shortly to rebuild it; reasoning that this most 
mournful and detestable crime happened not through any fault of the 
Roman people or of himself. 

No. 2, AE. 

Obverse. The laureate head of Vitellius to the right. The massive 
features are distinctly marked; beardless; bust undraped. Inscription 
(abbreviated): A VITELLIVS GERMA IMP AVG PM TR P; (supplied) 
—Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus Pontifcx Maximus 
Tribunitia Potestate. The last two expressions are " High Priest, Exer- 
cising the Tribunitian Power." 

No. 3, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Vitellius to the right. Inscription as in 
No. 2. 

Reverse. WiDged figure of Victory to the left, taking branches from 
the palm-tree, to which two shields are attached; behind her is a piece of 
armor. Legend: VICTORIA AVGVSTI— " The Victory of the Augus- 
tus " (or " The goddess Victory, tutelar of the Augustus "). 

As it was an ancient maxim of the Roman law that from the sentence 
of a general in actual service there was no appeal, the Emperors, who 
assumed the whole military power of the nation, were fond of stamping 
IMP, for Imperator (" Emperor") upon their coins. 

No. 4, AE. This may be studied in connection with the next nine, for 
all have the same Obverse. 

Reverse. Joined hands. This type is the ancient token of fidelity. 
Legend: FIDES EXERCITVM— " The fidelity of the Armies; "' S. C, for 
Senatus Cousulto— " By Decree of the Senate." The Joined Hands refer 
to the same event as the figure in No. 5, which see. Read also 2 Kings 
x, 15. 

The expression Senatus Consulto (having " Senatus " in the genitive 
case) has the same meaning as Senatus Decreto— " By Decree of the 

No. 5, AE. 

Reverse. The Emperor Vitellius in the habit of Mars advancing to the 
left; on his left shoulder is a trophy affixed to a spear; in his right hand 
is a gloriola, or image of Roman glory. Legend: CONSENSVS EXER- 
CITVVM— -The agreement of the Armies." This, as well as the term 
•'Fidelity of the Armies," in No. 4, refers to the harmony that pxisted 
among the different forces stationed in Gaul, in relation to the choice of 
Vitellius to be their Emperor. 

No. 6, AE. 

Reverse. Victory, with her usual attributes, moving gracefully to the 
left, holding out a circular shield on which is inscribed S P Q. R, for 
Senatus Populusque Romanus— "The Senate and Roman People." Leg- 
end: VICTORIA AVGVSTI-" The Victory of Augustus;" B.C., for 
Senatus Consulto—" By Decree of the Senate." This figure has the same 
reference as that in No. 7. 

No. 7, AE. See remarks upon No. 3. 

Reverse. A Victory, with usual attributes, to the left, assisting to 
raise a heavy trophy of shield and body-armor affixed to a po6t. A man, 
sitting upon a globe is aiding in the work. Legend, the same as No. 6. 
The reference is to the victory obtained by Vitellius at Bebriacum, where 
the forces of Otho were defeated" and Otho took his own life. 

No. 8, AE. 

Reverse. A soldier and a citizen joining hands. An expressive 
group. Legend: PAX AVGVSTI— " The Peace of the Augustus" (or 
"The goddess Peace, tutelar of the Augustus"); S. C, for Senatus Con- 
sulto—" By Decree of the Senate." 

The reference, doubtless, is to the reconciliation between Vitellius and 
the Senate, who speedily transferred their allegiance after the death of 

No. 9, AE. 

Reverse. The figure of Concord seated to the left, holding the patera 
over an altar, on which fire is burning. On her left arm is a full cornu- 
copia. Legend: CONCORDIA AVGVSTI—" The Concord of Augustus " 
(or " The goddess Concord, tutelar of the Augustus "); S. C, for Senatus 
Consulto— "By Decree of the Senate." Vitellius received the title Con- 
cordia from the Senate for his efforts to restore that neglected virtue to 
afflicted Rome. 

No. 10, AE. 

Reverse. The goddess Ceres seated to the left; in her left hand is the 
long torch, her well-known and mournful attribute; in her right hand, two 
spicae (wheat-ears), the token of her gift to the human race. Legend 
(partly mutilated): CERES AVG (usti)— " The Ceres of the Augustus" 
(or "The goddess Ceres, tutelar of the Augustus"); S. C, for Senatus 
Consulto — " By Decree of the Senate." 

This coin was struck to laud the efforts of Vitellius in providing an 
abundance of grain from Sicily, Egypt and other grain-producing prov- 
inces, for the use of the people of Rome. 

No. 11, AE. 

Reverse. Figure of Security seated to the left. The body nude to the 
hips; the right hand upon the head; the left arm resting upon the arm of 
the throne. Iler long torch lies transversely over the top of her basket, 
from which is emerging a serpent. The whole group is admirably sugges- 
tive of security. Legend (abbreviated): SECVRITAS P ROMANI; (sup- 
plied)— Securitas Populi Romani— "The Security of the Roman People" 
(that is, "The goddess Security, tutelar of the Roman People"); S. C, for 
Senatus Consulto — " By Decree of the Senate." 

No. 12, AE. 

Reverse. The figure of Equity standing to the left; her left hand sup- 
ported by an armed spear; in her right hand a pair of scales. Legend: 
AEQVITAS AVGVSTI— "The Equity CJustice) of Augustus" (that is, 
"The goddess Equity, tutelar of the Augustus"); S. C, for Senatus Con- 
sulto— "By Decree of the Senate." 

This specimen commemorates the equity of Vitellius in the decision 
of controverted public questions, as in the government of his own affairs 
as Emperor. 

No. 13. AE. 

Reverse. A large square altar with home corresponding with the 
number of corners. Below is the word PROVIDENT (ia)— "The Provi- 
dence" of Augustus (that is, "The goddess Provision, tutelar of the 
Augustus"); S. C, for Senatus Consulto— "By Decree of the Senate." 



Besides the thirteen coins figured on the fourth page there are others 
hearing various attributions, struck by Vitellius. Oue is a denarius with 
the laureate head of Vitellius on the Obverse, and A VITELLIVS IMP 
GERMAN AVG; and on the Reverse a seated figure representing Clem- 
ency bearing in her right hand a branch. The Legend is CLEMENT1A 
AVG GERMAN— " The Clemency of the Emperor Germanicus." The 
title "Germanicus" was bestowed upon our subject by the legions of 
Upper Germany. Otho being dead, Vitellius spared the life of his son, 
contrary to the Roman custom in similar cases, which was the same as 
the Oriental practice of the present day. " On account of his Clemency 
he spared him." Other cases of the same class are on record, so that 
Tacitus is constrained to acknowledge that " the victorious Vitellius took 
the glory of Clemency." There is also a gold coin (aureus) somewhat like 
our No. 9, save that the sitting figure has a branch in her hand. The Leg- 
end is CONCORDIA PR— "The Concord of the Roman People." When 
the death of Otho was known at Rome, the people applauded Vitellius. In 
the Senate, all things being properly arranged immediately, due honors 
were decreed to him, and upon the coin the fact of their unanimity is im- 

A very rare denarius of Vitellius is in existence with Legend, CONCOR- 
DIA PRAETORIANORVM— "The Concord of the Praetorian Guards." 
It has the figure of a woman standing; in her right hand, a branch; in her 
left, a cornucopia. When the death of Otho was made known, these veteran 
and princely forces called Praetorians, took the oath of fidelity (sacra- 
meutum) to Vitellius. Thus he was received as Emperor by "the Agree- 
ment of the Pretorians." 

This far-famed band of soldiers, of which so much appears in Roman 
history and upon our coins, appears as early as Scipio Al'ricanus, B.C. 200. 
It was then a Cohort (the tenth of a Legion) of select soldiers entitled, 
Cohors Praetoria, who attended the General and served as his body-guard. 
Augustus organized from these the Imperial Guard, upon which Napoleon's 
"Guard "was modeled. The Imperial Praetorians consisted, at first, of 
nine cohorts, each being a thousand men, horse and foot. They were en- 
listed in Italy alone. Under Vitellius sixteen Praetorian cohorts were 
enlisted, and four to guard the city. Severus (a.d. 193-211) remodeled 
them and increased their number by four times their ancient strength. 
They were finally suppressed by Constantine, and their camp, a strongly 
fortified post between the Porta Viminalis of the city and Esquilina, with- 
out the wall of Rome, was destroyed. They are often denominated Milites 

This favored corps of troops indulged in great pay, leisure and luxury, 
became extremely corrupt, made and unmade Emperors, and were far 
more a standing terror to the city than a garrison. 

Another coin, found both in gold and silver (aurei and denarii), presents 
the figure of Mars gradient; in his right hand a spear; on his left shoulder 
a trophy. These were struck before the self-murder of Otho occurred. 
Mars gradient suggests the destruction of the enemy in fight, which Vitel- 
lius exhibited as an omen of success. He had taken the sword of Julius 
Caesar from the temple of Mars, says Tacitus, after which, by the consent 
of the two German armies, he was proclaimed Emperor. The Legend on 
this coin expresses the fact, CONSENSVS EXERCITVM— " The Consent 
of the Armies." 

In the first coin of our series we present the figure of the Capitoline 
Jupiter. There is another, an extremely rare denarius, with the Legend, 
IVPITER VICTOR. In this device we see Jove seated; in his right hand 
a Victoriola; in his left, a spear. Hete Jupiter is styled Victor, because 
"he is thought to conquer all things." His temple as seen in our No. 1, 
was situated on the Palatine Hill, because on his festal day, on the ides of 
April, Vitellius defeated the forces of Otho at Bebriacum. 

Another coin found, both in gold and silver, presents the head of L. 
Vitellius, father of the Emperor, who was Consul three times, and Censor. 
The head of L. Vitellius is given. Before it is an ivory scipio, on which is 
perched an eagle. The Legend is, L VITELLIVS COS III CENSOR — 
"Lucius Vitellius, Consul the third time; Censor." Another die of the 
same coin has the togated figure of a man sitting in a curule chair, his 
right hand extended; an ivory scipio in his left. It was a worthy desire 
in Vitellius to have the merits of his father thus published. As all gold 
and silver coinage was made under personal direction of the Emperor (not 
the Senate), he gave these directions to the moneyer as we read to-day 
upon the coin. Plutarch says the office of Censor was the apex of all 
honors. The ivory scipio was the badge of Consulship. 

Another coin, in both gold and silver, gives the children of Vitellius. 
They are seen facing each other with the Legend, LIBERI IMP GERM 
AVG — " The Children of the Emperor Germanicus Augustus." We do not 
know the names of these children whose honors were 60 exalted and so brief. 
Tacitus speaks of one of them who perished with his father and grandfather. 
A denarius has the device of our No. 4, viz.: Two Right Hands Joined, 
and the Legend. "The Concord of the Praetorians." The twelve cohorts 
of this elegant corps at first proclaimed Otho. but when that prince was 
dead, went ever, with unanimity, to Vitellius; hence the Legend. 

A coin, both in silver and gold, presents a crown of oak leaves, Corona 
civilis, inclosing the Legend, S P Q R OB C S — Senatus Populusque 
Romauus ob Cives Servatos— "The Senate and Roman People for saving 
the lives of Citizens." 

"The civic crown was composed of oak leaves and bestowed upon him 
who had saved the life of a citizen. The mural crown was made of gold, 
and presented to those who, in assaults, were the first that forced their 
way into the towns. The camp crown was of gold and given to the man 
who mounted the rampart of an enemy's camp. The obsidional crown 
was composed of grass and presented, by the troops relieved from a siege, 
to the commander who succored them." But none of these was so honor- 
able as the civic crown. 

Vaillunt observes in relation to the coin last named that it was struck 
at the commencement of the government of Vitellius. The soldiers who 
nominated him had dragged him in his night-clothes from his bed to do 
so. That he was not likely to save the lives of citizens was seen in the 
fact that as he passed the battle-field, which had won for him the purple, 
instead of being offended by the stench of the cadavera there unburied, he 
declared it was delightful to smell the carrion of a dead foe, especially if 
he was a citizen. This brutal remark was repeated by the author of the 
St. Bartholomew massacre fifteen centuries later. 

Another coin, in both gold and silver, has the figure of Vesta sitting; 
in her right hand the patera or sacred dish; in her left, a flaming torch. 
The Legend is VESTA P R QVIRITIVM — Vesta Populi Roman! Quir- 
itium— " Vesta of the plebeians of the Roman People." This denotes that 
Vitellius was Pontifex Maximus (High Priest), and as such had the control 
of the Vestals, or priestesses of Vesta. He afterward sent them as am- 
bassadors to meet Vespasian and solicit peace. 

Another coin, in gold and silver, is much like our No. 3, a Victory gra- 
dient, having a shield in her right hand on which is written S-P-Q-R. The 
Legend is VICTORIA AVGVSTI. This refers to the victory over Otho 
obtained between Cremona and Verona, where Otho, who yet was not 
present at the battle, rather by treason than by the courage of his enemy, 
was overcome and committed 6uicide. 

The last coin which we present in this series is an aureus, having a 
Tripod (tripus) on which is placed a dolphin, and beneath it a raven. The 
historian Suetonius avers that Vitellius was adorned with the honors of 
the priesthood, even before he assumed the purple, and this coin implies 
that he was one of the Qnindecimvirl who had charge of the Sibylline 
Leaves and the general government of the state religion. The Legend 
is XVVIR SACR FAC— " Quindecimviri for performing sacred rites." 
The tripod was U6ed in the ceremonies of worship of Apollo, as the god 
himself had taught. The Raven was sacred to Apollo among all the birds. 
The Dolphin among fishes bore the same relation to him, for, as we learn 
in Homer, Apollo upon one occasion was transformed into a dolphin. As 
a coin-emblem the tripod pertains to the island of Gaulos. 

The four engravings occupying the lower half of the coin-sheet are thus 
named: 1. The Pantheon at Rome; 2. Head of Julius Caesar; 3. A Roman 
war-galley; 4. The various classes of Roman soldiers, viz.. the Triarius. 
Princeps, Hastatus, Velites, Funditores, Jaculatores. They will serve to 
illustrate various subjects throughout, this series. 

When the general, after consulting the auspices, decided to give battle, 
he displayed a red flag (rexillum) at his headquarters (praetarivm). The 
assembly was then called by sound of trumpet (tuba condone advocata) and 
the commander made an address to the soldiers, who gave assent by rais- 
ing the right hand, shouting and beating their shields with spears. Then 
all the trumpets sounded (signa canebant) and the soldiers cried out " to 
arms " (ad arma conclamatum est). The eagles were drawn up from the 
ground, the watchword was given, and the soldiers made nuncupative wills 
while preparing for battle. 

The forces having advanced near the enemy, the general rode through 
the ranks, exhorted them to courage, and gave the signal for attack. The 
Velites began by harassing the foe with light javelins and other missiles, 
in which they were aided by the Funditores (slingers) and Jaculatores 
(javelin-men). As the hostile lines drew nearer, these light troops retired 
through the intervals or by the flanks, and the Hastati (heavy spearmen) 
came up and launched their steel-pointed darts upon the enemy. If they 
failed to check the onset, they also retired, and gave way to the Principes, 
who formed the second line. If they in turn were compelled to retire. 
the Triarii (men of the third line), who thus far had stood in stooping 
posture, rose up and took the matter in hand. Hence the expression " it 
has come to the triarii " (ad triarios vent um est). These veteran reserves 
were so conscious of their skill and valor and the weight of their respon- 
sibility that they often stood the shock of cavalry as well as infantry. 

The combat being thus brought to close quarters, the three orders of 
soldiers united with closed ranks (compressis ordinibvs) and in one com- 
pact body (uno continents agmirie). and the result was rarely to its disad- 
vantage. For the enemy, after suffering from the light troops, must needs 
overcome, in three separate encounters, the Hastati, the Principes, and 
finally the Triarii reinforced by both the others. 


,M1— M 


AmesiQUlV AsSQOiSttiQXl o$ Numismatists. 


[Of the twelve Cresars who exercised imperial authority at Rome from 
B.C. 4T to a.d. 9G Vespasian was the tenth. The nine who preceded him 
were Julius Cesar, who ruled B.C. 47^4; Augustus, b.c. 31-a.d. 14; 
Tiberius, a.d. 14-37; Caligula, 37-41; Claudius, 41-54; Nero, 54-08; 
Galba, 68-69; Otho, 69, and Vitellius, 69. Those who succeeded Ves 
pasian are Titus, 79-81, and Domitian, 81-96.] 

Titus Flavius Sabiuus Vespasianus, tenth of the Caesars, Emperor of 
Rome a.d. 69 to 79, was born at Reate, in the Sabine country, fifty miles 
northeast of Rome, November 17, a.d. 9; a.u.c. 762. The reigning Em- 
peror was Augustus. The terrible defeat of the Roman legions in Ger- 
many, under Varus, occurred a few weeks before. The name of his father 
is unknown; his mother was Vespasian Polla, daughter of a prafechis 
castrorvm (commander of the camps) and sister of a Senator. Left a 
widow with two sons, Flavius and Vespasian, the latter, at her request, 
upon laying off the toga virilis (garment worn by young men from fifteen 
years) became a soldier. His career was steadily upward. In Thrace he 
was made tribunus militum (commander of the forces), in Crete and 
Cyrene, quasstor (revenues collector). He acted atdile (magistrate) and 
prailor (chief magistrate), and in the various posts of honor, from Britain 
to Arabia, fought the enemies of Rome for twoscore years with unvarying 
success. During the reign of Claudius (41-54) he was legatus legioriis 
(lieutenant-general) in the German wars and in Britain, where he con- 
quered the Isle of Wight. He was made Consul the first time during the 
latter part of a.d. 51; the second time, with his son Titus, a.d. 70; third, 
a.d. 71; fourth, with Nerva (afterward Emperor), a.d. 72; eighth, with his 
son Titue, a.d. 77, being the sixth time that Titus enjoyed this honor. 
These data serve to establish dates to the coins of his reign. 

Under Nero (54-68) Vespasian acted as pro-consul (that is, an ex-consul 
in command of a province). Here was developed that greed of money 
which stained the character of thiB distinguished soldier, and he was 
charged with gross extortion and outrage upon the people. This vice, 
however, was not calculated to forfeit the esteem of soldiers. His army 
loved him with rare devotion, and in their rude way petted him and 
bestowed nicknames upon him. In his habits Vespasian was singularly 
abstemious and frugal. He possessed a strong and healthy body, and was 
known to fast one day each month as a hygienic exercise. He seems 
never to have been actuated by hatred or revenge. 

When the Jewish outbreak began, a.d. 65, the Emperor Nero selected 
Vespasian to quell it. There was a standing grudge between the Emperor 
and the General ; for Vespasian had a contempt for Nero's musical abili- 
ties, and boldly expressed it; but this did not bliud the royal fiddler to 
military merit, and he unhesitatingly entrusted Vespasian with an army, 
large, well officered and well equipped for the work, which proved to be 
protracted and severe. Vespasian appointed his son Titus, then twenty- 
six years of age, as his lieutenant. 

Commencing in Syria and northern Palestine, Vespasian made two 
campaigns, and had brought the war to the very gates of Jerusalem when 
events occurred that threw the empire itself into his hands. The Emperor 
Nero committed suicide a.d. 68. Three contestants for the throne fol- 
lowed in rapid succession. Gulba was slain January a. i>. 69; Otho com- 
mitted suicide April 15; Vitellius was murdered December 20 of the same 

In this turmoil the armies of Vespasian took prerogative with the rest, 
and proclaimed him Emperor at Alexandria, Egypt, July 1, a.d. 69, and at 
the gates of Jerusalem July 3. This proclamation was indorsed by the 
other armies in the East, and early in a.d. 70 he went to Rome to be 
crowned. His reigu is properly reckoned from July 1, a.d. 69. Titus com- 
pleted the unfinished work in Judea, capturing Jerusalem September 8, 
a.d. 70. 

The reign of Vespasian was one of the most prosperous in the annals 
of Rome. He accomplished the rebuilding of the city, burnt in the reign 
of Nero, a.d. 64. Collecting copies of the public records lost in that dis- 
aster, he presented the State with the three thousand brazen tablets on 
which he had had them engraved, ne built the Coliseum, whose very 
ruins excite the wonder of visitors. He labored with untiring assiduity to 
restore social order, shaken in the recent changes of rulers, and disbanded 
mutinous corps of soldiers. As censor (magistrate of morals) he purged 

the Senate and the Eqves (the Order of Knights) of unworthy members 
He was affable and easy of access, and his example of piety and frugality 
effected more in reforming public morals than all laws. He often visited 
Reate, the place of his birth, and was never ashamed of the lowness of his 
origin. At the close of the Jewish war he shut the gates of the temple of 
Janus, and built a temple to peace. As censor he made an enumeration of 
the citizens of Rome a.d. 74, the last that ever was made. During his 
reign Pliny completed his great work upon Natural History, which is so 
honorably associated with his name, and inscribed it, a.d. 70, to Titus. 

On the 24th of June, a.d. 79, VeBpasian died at his birthplace, Reate, 
aged sixty-nine years seven months and seven days, having reigned ten 
years lacking six days. In his last moments he conceived the idea that 
an Emperor should meet the last enemy in the attitude of a soldier; so, 
commanding his attendants to lift him from his couch, he died standing 
erect. As Vespasian was the only Emperor since Augustus, a.d. 14, who 
met a natural death, — Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galbo, Otho, 
Vitellius, all suffering from violence, — perhaps the weakening mind was 
overcast with the shadow that had beclouded his predecessors, and he 
could not endure the thought of meeting death upon a bed. 

His wife, Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of an tques (Knight), had borne 
him two sons, Titus and Domitian, also a daughter named after herself. 
Her husband and each of her sons attained to imperial greatness, but both 
the Domitillas died before Vespasian became Emperor. 

According to custom, a series of Apotheosis Coins were struck in honor 
of Vespasian after his decease. Upon some appears the inscription, diws 
avgvstvs vespasianvs, " the Divine Augustus Vespasian." It recalls an 
expression of his own, made with reference to his approaching decease, 
Ut puto Deusfio, " I consider that I am made a god;" no arrogant expres- 
sion for a Ponlifex Maxim us (High Priest) about to be deified in the Roman 
manner. Upon some coins the inscriptions proved that they were struck 
by Titus in memory of this good parent. 

Such was the character of the tenth Ciesar, whose rugged features and 
healthy frame, whose victories, honors and civil merits, are 60 minutely 
detailed upon the coins, of which, in all the mint-metals, gold, silver and 
bronze, and in all the standard sizes (except third bronze), there is an 
immense number extant, and new ones coming to light daily in the 
numismatic "finds" of Europe, Asia and Africa. The annals of his 
reign are honestly recorded upon these metalic tablets even as the records 
of the ages that preceded him were recorded upon the 3,f 00 bronze plates 
which he deposited in the archives of Rome. The " good Vespasian " thus 
became known, face to face, to every member of his extended empire, and 
when the announcement of his death went out, June, a.d. 79, the natioual 
grief was intensified in the fact that all knew his face so well. 
what the coins teach concerning VESPASIAN. 

Besides the historical matter expressed in the readings of the eighteen 
coins, upon the next page we find additional facts upon the coins of Ves- 
pasian, which are the life of the period. The civic crown (the oak wreath) 
ordered him by the Senate, ob cices servatos, " for preserving the lives of 
citizens," appears upon his money. The unanimity with which the 
armies proclaimed him Emperor, a.d. G9, is expressed upon coins in 
emblems and legends like these: fides exercitum, "the fidelity of the 
armies;" consensus exercitum, "the harmony of the forces," etc. His 
reestablishment of the liberties of the nation is acknowledged upon coins 
under these expressions: adstrtori liberiaiis publico?, "to the restorer of 
public liberty;" liberta* publico, "the public liberty," etc. His great 
labors in rebuilding the burnt city and embellishing it with splendid edi- 
fices are admitted in these coin passages: Romaresvrges. "Rome rising 
again;" forhtnee re.dvci, "to him who brings back fortune." The un- 
counted benefits accruing to the Empire in restoring general peace is 
immortalized in coins in these epigraphs: pads eventus, "the coming of 
peace;" jxix populi fiomani, "the peace of the Roman people;" pax 
Augvsti, "the peace of the Emperor;" pax orbis terra/rum, " the peace of 
the entire world;" salas Augitsti, "the surety of the Emperor," etc. nis 
stern integrity is marked upon coins by ccguitas Angnsti, " the equity of 
the Emperor," etc. His bounty to those provinces desolated by earth- 
quakes is perpetuated in their coins by making an era of his reign, and 
styling it " the sacred year" of Vespasian. 




Of eighteen coins, gold, silver and bronze, of the Emperor Vespasian, 

from the illustrations on the fourth page. 

[The reader will observe in these Readings, First, that the size of the 
coins does not always agree with that of the illustrations. Second, that 
the metal is distinguished by an abbreviation, AY (aurum) standing for 
gold; Alt (argentum) for silver; AE (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, 
words indiscriminately used in numismatics. Third, that there are no 
punctuation-points on coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers 
to facilitate readings. Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms of 
Greek letters here but substitute modern type, and Fifth, that these Read- 
ings are prepared for the use of learners as well as experts.] 

No. 1. A gold coin (the aureus) struck at Rome. The value of this 
coin was estimated at 20 denarii, but they run from $3 to $4.44. The artis- 
tic execution of the aureus is usually good. 

Obverse. The head of Vespasian, crowned with laurel; face to right; 
bust nude; features grave; nose prominent. His age was 63. Inscription 
(abbreviated). IMP CAES VESP AVQ PM COS IIII. (Supplied,) Im- 
perator Ctesar Vespasianus Augustus Pontifex Maximus, Consul 4: "High 
Priest; Consul for the 4th time." This fixes the date of the coin to a.d 
72, when he was Consul with Nerva. 

Reverse. A captive female to the right, sitting under a palm tree, as in 
Lamentations ii, 10: " She, being desolate, shall sit upon the ground." On 
the opposite side of the tree stands Vespasian in military costume, his 
left foot upon a helmet; in his right hand a hastapura (headless spear); in 
his left, a parazoninm (small sword given by Emperor to tribune). 

No. 2. A bronze medal (medallion), struck at Rome. The value can 
not be estimated, as this class of numismata were not reckoned as coins. 

Obverse. Head of Vespasian, crowned with laurel; face to right; bust 
nude; features rugged and healthy, recalling the' account of an old writer: 
"his face was that of a corpulent man, very prosperous in health, which 
he maintained by abstinence and friction." The great national feature of 
the Roman, the nose, here vindicates itself superbly. Inscription (abbre- 
(Supplied,) Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus Pontifex Maximus 
Tribunitia Potestato Pater Patriae, Consul 3: " High Priest, exercising the 
Tribunitian power; Father of the country; Consul for the 3d time." This 
fixes the date a.d. 71. 

Reverse. An Allocution 6ccne; Vespasian delivering an address to 
the soldiers, as the word ADLOCVTIO demonstrates. The picture is fine- 
ly drawn, and will repay close examination. The Emperor is in military 
garb, bareheaded save the decoration of laurel. He stands upon a low, 
square platform, and throws forward hie right arm and left foot, in the at- 
titude of an orator. The three soldiers to whom he is speaking bear mili- 
tary standards in their right hand. Their arms may be examined piece by 
piece; open helmet with lofty crest; breast-plate, or coat of mail; greaves 
to protect the legs, and an ample buckler on the left arm, of an oblong and 
concave figure, four feet in length, two and a half in breadth, framed of 
light wood, covered with bull's hide and strongly guarded with plates of 

No. 3. A silver coin (denarius) struck at Rome. Value about 15 cents. 

Obverse. Head of Vespasian, as in No. 1, but the expression is not so 
care-worn. Inscription as in Nos. 1 and 2. 

Reverse. A captive female ("the daughter of Zion") to the left; 
back to the palm tree. Hands spread in attitude of supplication. In- 
scription. IVDEA DEVICTA, " the land of Judea subdued." There is 
no class of coins that excite more interest in Christian instruction of 
the present than these "Captivity coins," begun by Vespasian and con- 
tinued by Titus and Domitian. 

No. 4. A bronze coin struck in the mint of the Island of Cyprus. The 
letters are Greek of the old type; the style of mintage differs materially 
from that of Rome. 

Obverse. Omitted to economize space. It has the laureated head of 
Vespasian and the inscription. 


"The Emperor Vespasian." (There being no V in Latin, OU are substi- 
tuted; in English W, or Ouespasian, Wespasian). 

Reverse. The Temple of Venus, at Paphns (or Paphos), in CypruB. 
Remains of this ancient and splendid edifice have recently been exhumed 
and brought to the United States by General Cesnola. The oracle of this 
temple anaonnced to Vespasian upon his visit that not only was there a 
safe journey before him but a sure hope of the Empire. From her wor- 
ship here Venus is styled "the Paphian goddess." Inscription, 


" The common society of the Cyprian people: (a coin) of the year 8." This 
sets the date at a.d. 76, the 8th year of Vespasian's reign. 


(" of the year") being in the genitive, the words to be supplied may be 
"a coin," "an act," "a courtly token," etc. etc., but we prefer the first. 
In some coins of this class we find 


" of the new sacred year 8." The goddess Venus is seen in the center of 
the temple under the form ofa meta(acone). It is known that the inhabi- 
tants of the Cyprus, also the Syrians and Phoenicians, dedicated their 
Paphian coins to Vespasian because after an earthquake had desolated 
those parts he presented them with large sums of money for purposes of 

No. 5. A bronze coin struck at Thessalonica, a city in Macedonia, now 
termed Salonica, where the Turks perpetrated the horrid massacre of the 
Christians in 1876. The letters are Greek, the style of mintage resembles 
No. 4. 

Obverse, as in No. 4. 

Reverse. A wreath of olive-leaves (?) and fruit, within which an eagle 
looking to the right, supporting a palm branch. Inscription, 


"of the Thessalonians." The form of the letters differs from the last. 
The words to be supplied are as in No. 4, "A coin," etc. 

No. 6. A bronze coin. This and the two following are to be studied 
in connection. They display the glory of the Flavian family, the father 
and his two princely sons. 

Obverse. The head of Vespasian with the inscription (translated), 
"The Emperor Caesar Vespasian Augustus, Consul 3." The date, there- 
fore, is A.D. 71. 

Reverse. The deity adored by the Flavian family, their Tutelary 
goddess represented nude to the waist, sitting on a square seat to the left, 
and cherishing the two sous of Vespasian, — Titus and Domitian, — who 
stand as boys at either haud. The artistic execution is poor. Inscrip- 
tion. TVTELA AVGVSTI, "tutelary genius of the Emperor." There 
is something affecting in this desire of the monarch to accustom his sub- 
jects to their future rulers. But had he foreseen the character of his 
younger son, Domitian, our coin would have shown only one face on the 

No. 7. A bronze coin; companion to Nos. 6 and 8. 

Obverse. As No. 6. 

Reverse. Heads of the sons of Vespasian, — Titus and Domitian,— 
facing each other. Their appearance is youthful, Titus being about thirty- 
two years of age, Domitian twelve years younger. The lost figures con- 
tained the date. The artist has given to Titus the more frank and 
ingenuous countenance. Inscription (abbreviated). T VESP COS - - - 

D CAESAR AVG F COS DESIG IMP. "Titus Vespasian, Consul 

Domitian Caesar, sous of Augustus, Consul, designated Emperors." 

No. 8. A bronze coin ; companion to Nos. 6 and 7. 

Obverse. As No. 7. 

Reverse. The two heirs of the crown, Titus and Domitian, on horse- 
back to right. The attitude of steeds and riders is artistic, every attribu- 
tion being well conceived. No saddles are used, which recalls Csesar's 
note of a century earlier concerning the Suevii, that " nothing is deemed 
more shameful by them than the use of saddles." The two are bareheaded, 
their cloaks and the tails of their horses fly in the wind. They look and 
point forward earnestly, as if to an enemy. Inscription (abbreviated): 
Domitian, Caesars, Princes of the young men." This title, "Prince of 
Youth," was often applied to the heirs of the crown. 

No. 9. A bronze coin struck either at Nicomedia or Nicaea. The lan- 
guage is Greek. So much is erased that the reading is difficult. 

Obverse. The laureated head of Vespasian to the right; bust nude. 
Inscription (abbreviated) : 



(supplied) Autokratori Caesari Sebasto Vespasiano Neik, etc. (for Nico- 
media, or Nicaea), " To the Emperor Cajsar Augustus Vespasian (a coin) of 
the Nicomedians." 

Reverse. A tiger to the left keeping watch over an urn, or depositing 
something in it. Inscription (abbreviated): 


(supplied). . . Kou Plancion Varou; "of Plancius Varus." The missing 
letters perhaps give the name of the city of which Plancius Varus was 
prefect and which struck this elegant coin in honor of Vespasian. 

No. 10. A bronze coin struck at Rome. This may be studied in con- 
nection with the next three. 



Obverse. Face of Vespasian to the right. General appearance as in 
the preceding coins, a rugged soldierly face, pinched with the frosts of 
Britain, bronzed with the suns of Africa. Inscription (abbreviated), IMP 
CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III., "the Emperor Ciesar Vespasian 
Augustus Consul 3." This sets the date a.d. 71. 

Reverse. As No. 11. 

No. 11. A bronze coin struck at Rome. 

Obverse. As No. 10. 

Reverse. The weeping " daughter of Zion," seated to the left, under 
a palm tree, upon a confused heap of Roman shields, a helmet in the rear. 
The luxuriance of the tree in foliage and fruit is notable. The mourner 
rests her forehead upon her right hand iu a pathetic attitude, her veil 
floating behind her. Her left arm droops in graceful wilduess. Inscrip- 
tion (abbreviated), IVDEA CAPTA S. C; (supplied) Judea Capta. Sen- 
ates Consnlto: "Judea being conquered (this coin is struck) by decree of 
the Senate." The old numismatists read this attribution thus, Pi-ovincia 
lugens inter arma juxta palmam, "the province weeping, among arms, 
near a palm tree," so terse and expressive is the Latin tongue. 

No. 12. A bronze coin struck at Rome. 

Obverse. Like that of No. 10. The inscription reads, "The Emperor 
C'sesar Vespasian Augustus Consul 8, father of the country." This sets 
the date a.d. 77. 

Reverse. The "sorrowing female," as in No 10, seated to the left 
upon the ground, her back to palm tree, which displays foliage only. 
Her forehead is supported by left hand. In the rear is an assemblage of 
Roman arms and banners. Inscription (abbreviated), VICISTI CAES 
S. C: (supplied) Vicisti Ca?sari: Senatus Consulto, "to the conquering 
Cwsar; by decree of the Senate." 

No. 13. A bronze coin struck at Rome. 

Obverse. As No. 10. 

Reverse. The "symbol of Judea" to the right, seated upon a helmet, 
back to palm tree, shields and other arms near by. The attitude is even 
more pathetic than the preceding. The tree yields leaves and fruit (dates). 
Inscription as in No. 11, save that the S. C. is in the Exergue (space 
below and " out of" the field of the coin). 

No. 14. A gold coin (aureus) struck at Rome. Value and weight as in 
No. 1. 

Obverse. Laureated head of Vespasian to right, bust nude. Inscrip- 
tion, IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, "the Emperor Oiesar Ves- 
pasian Augustus." 

Reverse. The "Jewish mourner" sitting to right on the ground, at 
her back a Roman trophy. Inscription, IVDJSA, the word being spelled 
with the diphthong, which is not the case in the preceding. 

The Roman trophy was a collection of spoils taken from an enemy, and 
fixed upon something as signs or monuments of victory, erected usually 
at the place where the success was gained, and consecrated with appro- 
priate inscription to some deity. They were not much used by the 
Romans, who were sparing of insults to the vanquished. 

No. 15. A silver coin (denarius) struck at Rome. Value as No. 3. 

Obverse. As No. 14. 

Reverse. The "symbolical mourner" to the right, seated upon the 
ground, at the foot of a fruitful palm. Her hands tied. Her attitude 
indicative of utter distress. Inscription as No. 14. 

No. 16. A gold coin (aureus) struck at Rome. Value and weight as in 
No. 1. 

Obverse. Laureated head of Vespasian to the right, bust nude. Hair 
is notably thinned away from the forehead, and the profile sharp. In- 
bcription: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG TR P, " the Emperor 
Csesar Vespasian Augustus, exercising the Tribunitian power." 

Reverse. A triumphal chariot to the right (quadriga;, four-horsed). 
In it stands Vespasian. Victory crowning him from the rear. Iu his left 
hand he bears an olive branch.(?) Trumpeter sounds a triumph. Two 
captives with hands bound behind their backs walk before. Inscription 
(abbreviated): TRIVMP AVG: (supplied) TRIVMPHVS AVGVSTI; 
" the triumph of the Emperor." 

These captives are two of the seventy leaders in the Jewish war, viz., 
Simon Gioras and John of Gischala, who, after gracing the triumph 
decreed by the Roman Senate to Vespasian and Titus, were put to death 
in the Mamertine prison, according to the custom on such occasions. 
(Writers, however, differ aB to the fate of John.) 

No. 17. A bronze coin struck at Rome. The peculiar beauty is due 
not to the art of the moneyer, but the modern engraver. 

Obverse. The laureated head of Vespasian to the right, as in preced- 
ing specimens. The massive set of the features is strikingly marked. 
Inscription (abbreviated): IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TRP 
PP COS VII. " The Emperor Caesar Vespasian Augustus Pontifcx Maxi- 

mus (exercising) Tribunitian Power, Father of the Country, Consul the 
seventh time." This sets the date a.d. 76. 

Reverse. The front of a hexastyle (six-columned) temple approached 
by steps ranging the whole front of the building. Five statues appear,— 
three of deities in as many apartments, two at the wings. The seated 
figure in the center is probably Jupiter; that on the right, Minerva; 
on the left, Juno. On the sloping lines of the roof are many sculptured 
figures; and in the tympanum an assemblage of such, the central one 
being seated. The two on the left are probably smiths working at an 
anvil. Everything connected with this Reverse is artistic and beautiful. 
The building itself is probably the Capitol rebuilt by Vespasian, though 
some writers account it as his Temple of Peace. Inscription: S. C; 
Senatus consulto; " by decree of the Senate." 

No. 18. A bronze coin struck in honor of Flavia Domitilla, the wife of 
Vespasian and mother of Titus and Domitian and their sister Domitilla. 
The letters are Greek. It is of the class entitled " Consecration Coins." 

Obverse. Face of Domitilla to the right, hair elegantly arranged, bu6t 
draped. The features are mild and maternal, the general expression 
pleasing. Inscription: 


"Flavia Domitilla." 

Reverse. A serpent upon the back of a horse which is galloping to 
the right. This is an ancient Greek symbol suggesting the brevity of 
human life. Domitilla died before her husband reached the royal station, 
so the swiftness of time is here expressed by the serpent which runs into 
itself, and the galloping steed. The letters 

yiJare for A YliABAI 6, 
" the sixth year of Vespasian," or a.d. 75. 

Numismatists are divided in opinion upon this and other coins of 
Domitilla, some deeming them honors paid to the daughter of Domitilla, 
who bore the same name with herself. We base our conclusion, however, 
upon the mature and matronly expression of the face, and the term 
Augusta, " Empress." They arc, of course, Apotheosis, or Consecration 
Coins, struck after the decease of the person whom they commemorate. 
There are at least four others to our knowledge of this class whose 
Obverses have the head of Domitilla and inscriptions, DIVA DOMIT- 
ILLA AVGVSTA, "the deified Empress Domitilla." The Reverses are: 
1. The radiated head of Vespasian with "the Divine Augustus Vespasian," 
proving that this was coined after Vespasian's death; 2. The goddess 
Fortune standing with temo (carriage pole), cornucopia:, and " the fortune 
of the Empress;" 3. The stolatccl (lady's robe) figure of a woman standing, 
holding iu her right hand a flower, in her left a garment with " to the 
peace of the Empress;" A. The figure of a woman sitting, with a boy at 
her feet, and " the piety of the Empress." This last refers to the fact that 
upon the apotheosis of this lady, temples were erected to her worship, and 
a special order of priests appointed, entitled Sacerdos Diva? Domitilla?, 
" the Priesthood of the deified Domitilla." 


The title, "Chief of the Young Men," applied in these illustrations to 
the sons of the Emperor, was a frequent appellation upon coins. It has 
ever been the custom of hereditary rulers to honor their sons, especially 
oldest sons, with such titles as would give dignity to the royal heir, and 
ingratiate him in the favor of those over whom he might be called to 
reign. In the republican history of Rome, the expression meant simply 
" one of the most noble among tne knights," but under the empire it was 
applied, exclusively, to the heir of the throne. 

We find it upon many coins in our cabinet. Commodus, son of the em- 
peror Marcus Aurelius, received this title at the conclusion of the first 
German war. His coin has the olive branch, the symbol of peace. Diad- 
umenianus, the "beautiful boy," sou of I he emperor Macrinus, received it at 
the age of nine years. Maximus C.fsar, the "haughty lad," son of Maxim- 
ums I, bore it during his brief period. Saloninus, son of the emperor 
Gallienus, enjoyed the title during his little stay upon earth, and he is seen, 
invested with the title, upon a denarius, wearing the paludamentum (gen- 
eral's military cloak), and having a standard in his right hand. Philip, 
Junior, son of the emperor Philip Arabian, bore it during his term of five 
years, and exhibits it upon a gold coin (aureus), standing paludated. aglobe 
in his right hand, a scipio (official staff) in his left, and two standards be- 
hind him. Herennius, son of the good emperor Trajan Decius, bore the 
title during his ephemeral stay of two years. 

It is a sad story, that of these Principes Jurevtvtis. Their elevation 
was a prelude to their fall. A succession of bright, beautiful boys upon 
a coin-series, from Antiochus VI (slain by his guardian Tryphon), down 
through all the centuries of coin-annals, is as sad a picture of humanity 
as history presents. 






American AssQOiatioa ©i ^ummmatlstB, 


[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome from 
B.C. 47 to a.d. 96, Titus, a.d. 70-81, wus the eleventh. The ten who pre- 
ceded him, under this title were: Julius Caesar, b.c. 47-44; Augustus, 
b.c. 31-a.d. 14; Tiberius, 14-37; Caligula, a.d. 37-41; Claudius, 41-54; 
Nero, 54-68; Galba, 68-69; Otho, 69; Vitellius, 69, and Vespasian, 
69-19. The one who succeeded him was his brother, Domitian, 81-96.] 

Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus, eleventh of the Caesars, Emperor of 
Rome, a.d. 69 to 71, was born at Rome December 30, a.d. 40, about three 
weeks prior to the murder of Caligula. The reigning Emperor was Ca- 
ligula. "The mean house with the small chamber " in whjch this good 
prince ilrst saw the light, was shown, as an object of popular curiosity, as 
late as the time of Suetonius, about a.d. 90. His father having precisely 
the same name, was the tenth of the Roman Emperors, and his immediate 
predecessor. His mother, Flavia Domitilla, was a lady of good family, 
and all that is recorded of her is favorable. His only brother, Domitian, 
succeeded him as Emperor. 

From childhood Titus manifested a good disposition. His figure was 
well modeled, save that his stomach was somewhat protuberant; he was 
active and expert in all bodily exercises, possessed a great aptitude for 
learning, was an accomplished musician and a most expert short-hand 
writer, an accomplishment in which the Romans of that period excelled. 

The youth of Titus was passed in the imperial household of Claudius, 
and in the same manner and with the same instructors as Britannicus, 
then heir-apparent to the throne. Upon the accession of Nero he received 
similar favors from the new Emperor, and was a guest at Nero's table 
when Britannicus drank from the envenomed cup and died. 

While yet a young man Titus acted as tribunus militum, both in Britain 
and Germany, and with much credit. Following this he was promoted 
quaestor. He then applied himself to the labors of the forum. He was 
twice married, first to Arricidia, a lady of good family, and upon her 
death, to Marcia Furnina, a woman of high rank, by whom he had a daugh- 
ter, Julia Sabina, to whose unhappy fate we refer in our sketch of Domi- 
tian. The frequency of divorces among the Romans of the period was so 
marked that it is useless to inquire why he divorced Marcia after the birth 
of her daughter. 

But it was in the Jewish war of a.d. 66 to 70 that Titus acquired his 
principal renown. Having command of a legion lie was made lieutenant- 
general by his father, Vespasian, and as such was chiefly instrumental in 
the siege and capture of the cities of Tarichaea and Gamala, described 
by Josephus. When Galba was proclaimed Emperor, a.d. 68, Titus was 
sent by his father to pay his respects to the new monarch, and probably 
to ask for that promotion to which his services entitled him. But arriving 
at Corinth he learned of the death of Galba and went no further. 

He returned to Vespasian, who was already dreaming of the higher des- 
tiny before him. Titus reconciled Mucianus, governor of Syria, with his 
father, and thus contributed greatly to the result that followed. Vespasian 
was proclaimed Emperor by his soldiers, first at Alexandria, Egypt, July 
1, 69, and two days later at the gates of Jerusalem. Titus accompanied his 
father as far as to Egypt, on the way to Rome, and then returned to Pales- 
tine to complete the work in progress there. All writers acknowledge that 
he displayed the talents of a general with the daring of a soldier. More 
than once his person was placed in imminent peril by the fury of the 
Jews, and rarely had the Roman legions encountered a people whose con- 
quest cost them so dearly. 

September 8, a.d. 70, Jerusalem was taken by storm, and Titus received 
from his soldiers the title of Imperator. During the next eight months he 
occupied himself in a conference at Zeugma, on the Euphrates, with the 
Parthian ambassadors, and in a visit to Egypt, where he assisted at the 
consecration of the bull Apis at Memphis. On his journey to Italy he had 
an interview with Apollonius, of Tyana, who gave him excellent counsel. 

In the Judaean Triumph Titus was associated with his father and with 
his brother Domitian, the latter riding a horse in the procession. He also 
received the title of Caesar, and was associated with Vespasian in the 
government. They acted together as Censors, and Titus was made Prae- 
fectus Pretorio, an office which had hitherto only been held by Roman 

Upon the death of Vespasian, June 24, 79, Titus succeeded peaceably to 
the throne, and has left a record truly enviable. During his brief reign of 
two years he displayed a sincere desire for the happiness of his people, and 
did all he could to relieve them in times of distress. Upon one occasion 

remembering at the close of an evening that he had made no charitable 
gifts since he arose, he cried out to his friends, "I have lost a day!" 
Various conspiracies were formed against him, but Titus pardoned the 
plotters and endeavored to win them to him by kindness. Even his bro- 
ther Domitian entertained designs against him, but was forgiven and taken 
into renewed confidence. He checked all prosecutions for laesa majestas, 
which, from the time of Tiberius had been a fruitful source of false accu- 
sation, and severely punished informers. 

At the close of 79 Titus repaired one of the great Roman aqueducts. 
The success of Agricola in Britain justified the Emperor in assuming the 
title of Imperator for the second time. This year is memorable for the 
great eruption of Vesuvius, in which the elder Pliny lost his life, and Her- 
culaneum and Pompeii were destroyed. Titus endeavored to repair the 
losses by sending two consulars with money to restore the ruined cities. 
He visited in person the site of the catastrophe. While absent a great fire 
occurred in Rome, destroying the Capitol, the Library of Augustus and 
other edifices and treasures. To repair and rebuild, the Emperor sold even 
the decorations of the royal residences. The eruption of Vesuviu was 
followed by a terrible pestilence, which called for fresh exertions on the 
part of the benevolent Emperor. 

A.D. 80 he completed the Coliseum began by his father; also the 
"Baths of Titus"; repaired several aqueducts, and paved the road to 
Rimini. A.D. 81 Agricola was employed in a campaign against the Scots. 

This amiable monarch died September 13, a.d. 81, in the same villa in 
which his father had breathed his last but two years before. He was forty- 
one years of age and had reigned two years two months and twenty days. 
Whispers were indulged in at the time that his brother Domitian was in- 
strumental iu hastening his end. 

In the coin-sheet of Caligula, near the lower left-hand corner, will be 
seen an engraving of the Arch of Titus at Rome, as it appears at the pres- 
ent day. This is the oldest triumphal arch now existing in that city, if 
we except the doubtful monument of Drusus; and as a proof and an illus- 
tration of the most important event in the Jewish History, there is not, 
perhaps, a more interesting monument of antiquity in the world. It was 
completed a.d. 80. Trajan erected one a.d. 114, and Constantine a.d. 
312, which was made a pattern by the British in building their Marble 
Arch iu Hyde Park, London. The view of this monument of Titus cor- 
roborates the opinion offered more than once in these sheets, that the 
Roman government set an extraordinary value upon their conquests in 
Judaea. Why this was 60 will demand some knowledge of the people and 
the history of the Jews. It was not that the fanaticism and desperate 
bravery of the people prolonged the war and cost their conquerors some 
adverses. This had occurred to even a greater extent in the subjugation 
of other countries scarcely named upon coins. But here we see the con- 
quest of a small territory, insignificant in wealth, an agricultural and 
pastoral people, who had never come into competition, either in arts or 
arms, with Rome; we see their conquests recorded successively upon the 
coins of the father (Vespasian), who began the war of subjugation; of the 
son, Titus, who completed it in a manner almost unprecedented in Roman 
warfare, viz., by the utter destruction of the towns and general deporta- 
tion of the people; and, finally, of his brother (Domitian), who had no 
share in the war. Not only was the conquest of Judaea stamped upon 
millions of the people's coinage (the bronze) for twenty-six years, so that 
every person in the Empire was impressed with the importance of the 
event, but Titus gave still greater eclat to the Jews by erecting the Arch at 
Rome, to which reference has already been had. No wonder that Jose- 
phus, residing at Rome for thirty years after these events occurred, and at 
a period when some of the best historians of Rome were at work, was 
importuned to relate, for the benefit of the learned, the history and char- 
acter of a people whose subjugation gave such honor to the world's con- 

The goddess Concord makes a striking appearance upon the coins of 
Titus. This benign deity, together with Eirane (Pax) Victoria and others 
of the class, gave much pleasure to the people in the distribution of his 
money from hand to hand. One can imagine that in making a payment with 
money stamped with the attributions of Concordia, the parties would 
shake hands! Her symbols were two right hands joined, and a pome- 
granate. She was devoutly worshiped by the Romans. In her right hand 
appears the bowl, or sacred platter (patera), or sometimes the olive-branch; 
in her left, the Horn of Plenty. Several temples to Concord adorned and 



honored the Queen City; one built as early as the time of Furius Camillus 
to commemorate the reconciliation between the plebeians and patricians. 
The Senate held meetings in that temple until Livia repaired and her son 
Tiberius consecrated it, a.d. 9. In the time of Constantine aud Maxcntlus 
(a.d. 312) this temple was burnt, but again restored. Several other temples 
to Concord are known to have existed at Rome. 

Of Victoria (Victory), whoso attributions appear so frequently upon the 
coins of Titus, but little need be said. She was one of the deities of 
Rome, as well she might be, considering the warlike character of that 
people. The Greeks called her NIKA, and it is a common ascription 
upon Byzantine coins, IS KS NIKA, in Greek characters. She was reck- 
oned the sister of Strength and Valor, and one of the attendants of Jupi- 
ter. Sylla raised a temple to her in Rome and instituted festivals in 
her honor. She was represented with wings, crowned with laurel and 
holding the branch of a palm tree in her hand. A golden statue of this 
goddess, weighing 330 pounds, was presented to the Romans by Hiero, 
King of the Syracusans, about B.C. 400, and deposited in the temple of 
Jupiter on the Capitolinc Hill. 

The arms of the Roman soldiers, so often seen upon these coins, 
were of two classes, offensive and defensive. The latter consisted of 
four pieces, viz. : 1. The Helmet (galea). This was of brass or iron, 
with projections at the base to protect the neck aud shoulders, with a 
chin-piece, covered with scales of brass. 2. The Cuirass (thorax vH 
pectorale). A hollow plate of brass one foot square, adapted to the 
form of the chest and fastened with thongs of leather, protected by metal- 
lic scales. 3. The Greave (ocrea). A species of boot, fortified with iron, 
worn on the right leg to protect the right foot, which was always set 
foremost in a fight with swords. 4. The Shield or Buckler (scutum) 
attached to the left arm, in form a demi-cylindor, four by two and a 
half feet, of iron plates covered with bull hide. 

The offensive armor consisted of four pieces: 1. The Sword (glad- 
iiim)\ a straight, broad blade for cut and thrust, fastened by girdle (tin- 
gnlum). 2. Javelin or Spear (hasta vel lancea). This was peculiar to 
the light infantry. It was a dart throe feet long, shod with iron and 
furnished with a thong (ausea). 3. Heavy dart (pilum), six or seven 
feet long. The point was barbed like a fishhook, and each soldier had 
two. 4. Pike. This was the weapon of the triarii, or veterans of the 
third rank. It was longer and more solid than the pilum. 


Of twenty-seven coins, silver and bronze, of the Emperor Titus, from 

the illustrations on the fourth page. 

[The student will observe in these Readings: First, that the size of a 
Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture. Second, that the 
metal is distinguished by an abbreviation,— AV (aurum) standing for gold; 
AR (argentum) for silver; AE (am) for copper, bronze or brass, words 
indiscriminately used in Numismatics. Third, that there are few punctua- 
tion points on coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to facili- 
tate Readings. Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms of Greek 
letters here, but substitute modern type; and, Fifth, that these Readings 
are prepared as well for the use of Learners as experts.] 

No. 1, AE. 

To preserve the symmetry of the page the two faces of this cut are 

Obverse. Laureate head of Titus to the right. Resemblance between 
him and his father, like that of their names, is very close. Beardless; 
bust undraped. Inscription (abbreviated): IMP T CAES VESP AVG 
P M TR P P P COS VIII; (supplied) — Imperator Titus Caesar Vespas- 
ianus Augustus Pontifex Maximus Tribunitia Potcstate Pater Patriae 
Consul 8— "nigh Priest; Exercising the Tribunitian Power; Father of 
the Country; Consul the eighth time.'' This sets the date of the coin 
at a.d. 80. (An error of the engraver has made the IMP to read IMV.) 
The letters PP, in the time of Julius Caesar, were read Parens Patriae, 
but afterward Pater Patriae. 

Reverse. A palm tree, rich in foliage and fruit. "The daughter 
of Sion" at the base, on the right, weeping. A Roman soldier on the 
left, as if keeping guard. His right hand is supported by the hasta pura ; 
in his left is a parazoniam. His left foot is supported upon a low object; 
attitude graceful and commanding. Legend: IVDAEA CAPTA— " Judea 
Subdued." S. C. for Senatus Consulto— "By decree of the Senate." 

As we have already remarked, it proves how highly the Roman gov- 
ernment valued the conquest of this little territory of Palestine, to see 
these ascriptions of "Judea Captured," not only on the coins of Ves- 
pasian, under whose rule it was subdued, but also of Titus, who was the 
acting general in its conquest, and of Wb brother Domitian after him, 

who had no more to do with it than to take n part in the triumph 
decreed by the Senate to Vespasian. Yet for twenty-six years this device 
was occasionally stamped upon the current money of Rome. 

No. 2, AR. 

The two faces of the cut are separated on the sheet to give propor- 
tion to the group. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Titus to the right; beardless; bust un- 
draped. Inscription: "Titus Caesar Vespasian." The reading of this 
passage is from right to left, as in some earlier coins. 

Reverse. The Emperor paludatcd, under guise of a horseman, gal- 
loping to the right, with a long spear vibrating in his right hand. Atti- 
tudes of steed and rider life-like. Legend: PONT MAX, for Pontifex 
Maximus— "High Priest." 

The Emperors transferred to themselves this dignity of High Priest 
as perpetual; that is the P. M., unlike those of Consul and Tribunitian 
Power, were not renewable but ad vilam. Titus, wearing a general's 
cloak, refers to his preparation for that expedition into Britain for which 
be offereu sacred rites as High Priest. 

No. 3, AR. 

Obverse. The laureate head of Titus to the right, as in preceding 
numbers. Inscription: "Titus Caesar Imperator Vespasian." 

Reverse. The Emperor as High Priest, seated to the right; right 
hand supported by a stuff; in the left, an olive branch. Legend: PON- 
TIF MAXIM, for Pontifex Maximus —"The High Priest." See remarks 
upon the Reverse of No. 2. 

No. 4, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

This coin may be studied in connection with the nine following, as 
they all have the same Obverse, with the head of Titus and inscription 
(Anglici): " Titus Emperor Caesar Augustus Vespasian." 

Reverse. A palm tree. Victory, on the left side, holds a shield 
against the body of the tree, as if about to inscribe upon it the Judaean 
conquest. Her left foot is supported by a globe. Legend: IOYAAIAE 
EAAOKYIA2— Judaea Devicta— " Judea Subdued." This is the same 
group as upon the Reverse of No. 1, but less elaborate. 

No. 5, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. A Roman Trophy. Upon a strong post, or trunk of tree, 
are fixed the spoils of victory,— shields, helmet, body-armor, etc. At 
the foot, on the left, a miserable captive seated; his arms bound behind 
him; his attitude dejected in the extreme. On the right of the tree a 
shield. Legend as No. 4. These Judaean spoils arranged as a trophy 
show the avidity with which the Romans sought fame in the conquest 
of foreign peoples. 

No. 6, AE. 

Reverse. A laurel wreath, within which is the Inscription (sup- 
plied): 4>AAOYIEQN NEAnOAITON SAMAPEIA2— " Of the people of 
Neapolis Flavia, of Samaria." The city of Neapolis, formerly Sichem, 
now Nablous, is in that beautiful locality between Mounts Ebal and 
Gerizim, where the great drama of "The Reading the Law" was en- 
acted by Moses, as in Joshua viii, 30-35. The name Flavia, a family 
name of Titus, was given to the city in his honor. The crown denotes 
the one presented him by the Samaritans after his conquest of Judaea, 
accomplished September, a.d. 70, in the destruction of Jerusalem. A 
coin with the same inscription was afterward struck by Domitian. The 
hereditary hatred entertained by the Jews against the Samaritans doubt- 
less had something to do with these transactions. 

No. 7, AE. 

Reverse. The figure of Sol (the sun) standing to the left, on the prow 
of a vessel; right hand supported by hasta pura; on left arm a long branch; 
on another branch that springs from the ground behind is perched a dove; 
in front of the figure an altar. Legend (mutilated): A2KAAO— "Of the 
people of Askalon." This was struck in honor of Titus at the close of his 
Judaean war, a.d. 70, by the citizens of Askalon, then a great city, now a 
pile of ruins. The execution of this coin displays a low state of art. 


Reverse. The head of a female to the right; bust closely draped; her 
head decorated by an elephant's proboscis. Legend: "To Flavia, by the 
Cyreneans." This coin was struck in honor of Titus by the people of 
Cyrene, in Africa, at the close of the Jndaean war, a.d. 70. Many Jews 
were slain here, after the destruction of Jerusalem, by Catulus, the gover- 
nor, as Josephus painfully relates. The elephant's head is a common 
emblem upon coins struck in the various mints of northern Africa. 

Cyrene was the locality so famous for its production of laserpitium, or 
laserwort, formerly called Bilphium. Professor Wood defines it as " the 
ancient name of some resinous plant;" order compositae, and names nine 
species, but says nothing of the qualities of the gum in medicine. So im- 
portant was the trade in this plant to the interests of the Cyreneans that 
they placed a figure of it upon their coins. '-.'■■ 

No. 9, AE. 

Reverse. Victory gradient the left, with her usual attributes; wings, 
palm-branch in left hand, and crown of success in right. No legend. 



No. 10, AE. 

Reverse. Victory, with the same attributions as in No. 9; gradient to 
the right. Legend (supplied): ETOY2 Kr BA2IAEY2 ArmiIIA2 — 
"Of the 23d year of King Agrippa." This coin refers to the aid com- 
municated by King Agrippa to Titus iu the Jewish war, of which Josephtis 
testifies. The wife of Agrippa, Berenice, had a liaison with Tims, and he 
would have married her but for the detestation of the Romans against the 
whole Jewish race. For some time she assumed publicly the part of a 
wife, aud excited such feeling against the prince that finally he repudiated 
her. The date 23d year refers of course to the reign of Agrippa. 
No. 11, AE. 

Reverse. The goddess of Peace to the left, standing in graceful atti- 
tude; her stola reaches to her feet; on left arm is the caducaeus; in right 
hand are three heads of wheat. Legend: EIPHNH— "Peace." After the 
triumphs of Vespasian, and his firm establishment upon the throne of the 
Empire, he decreed the erection of a temple to Peace. Joscphus affirms 
(Wars of the Jews, book vii, ch. 5,) that " Vespasian resolved to build a 
temple to Peace, which he finished in so short a time, and in so glorious a 
manner, as was beyond all human expectation and opinion. For he, 
having won, by Providence, a vast quantity of wealth, besides what he had 
formerly gained in his other exploits, had this temple adorned with pic- 
tures and statues. In this temple were collected and deposited all such 
rareties as men aforetime used to wander all over the habitable world to see 
one after another. He also laid up therein, as ensigns of his glory, those 
golden vessels and instruments that were taken out of the Jewish temple." 
No. 12, AE. 

Reverse. Image of Diana, the huntress, goddess of the woods and Ihe 
chase, to the right; her bow is hanging upon her left arm; with her right 
haud she draws an arrow from the quiver. But her attributes of the stag, 
attendant nymph, etc., are absent. No legend. 
No. 18, AE. 

Reverse. The laureate head of Titus to the right. Legend (Anglice): 
"Domitiau Caesar; of the Samians." This coin was struck at Samos, a 
fertile island in the Aegean Sea, off the lower part of the coast of Ionia. 
The temple and worship of Juno contributed much to its fame and afflu- 
ence, and the attributes of Juno are often seen upon Samian coins. Py- 
thagoras was born here about B.C. 550. The Samiaus placed the brother 
of Titus upon this coin, thinking to please them both. 
No. 14, AE. 

The Obverse has the head of Titus, with the inscription: "The Em- 
peror Titus Caesar Vespasian Augustus, the High Priest; Exercising the 
Tribunitian Power; Consul the 8th time." This gives the date a.d. 80. 

Reverse. A Meta (Metula) or Boundary Post, such as was used in 
public games, commonly in form of a cone or pyramid, as the one here 
figured. The pyramidal column at each end of the circus at Rome, around 
which the charioteers turned seven times, was particularly known by the 
term Meta. There are many of these yet standing in Rome, constructed 
at various periods. Upon a medal of Pope Innocent X (1644) is a Meta. 
The letters S. C. are for Senatus Consulto— " By Decree of the Senate," 
as often explained in our series. 
No. 15, AE. 

The Obverse has the head of Titus, with the Inscription: "Titus 
Caesar, Emperor, Exercising the Tribunitian Power." 

Reverse. The symbol of Antioch in Syria, viz., a female head to the 
right, wearing a turreted crown; bust draped; hair elaborately dressed in 
ringlets; ANTIOXIA— " Antioch." 
No. 16, AE. 

This may be studied in connection with the two succeeding. The 
Obverse of each has the head of Julia to the right, with the Inscrip- 
tion, "Julia Augusta, daughter of the Emperor Titus Augustus." 

Reverse. The goddess Vesta seated to the left, her left foot upon 
a low block; draped to the feet; in left hand a long, armed spear; in 
right, a gloriola. Legend: VESTA. S. C. is for Senatus Consulto — 
"By Decree of the Senate." 

The fate of this unhappy woman is sad enough. She married Flavins 
Sabinus, nephew of her grandfather, Vespasian, lived in criminal inter- 
course with her uncle, Domitian, and died of abortion produced by the 
orders of that brutal and savage prince. 
No. 17, AE. 

Reverse. The goddess Ceres, standing, in graceful attitude, to the 
left; left hand supported by hasta pura; in right, a parcel of wheat ears. 
Legend: CERES AVGVSTA— "The Augustan Ceres " (or "Ceres, tute- 
lar of the Empress.".) S. C. for Senatus Consulto— "By Decree of the 
Senate." All the hopes <>f bread among the people whose coins we arc 
describing, were associated with Ceres, deity of the cornfield. The 
island of Sicily was styled- by the ancients "The abode of Ceres," for 
its extraordinary abundance of grain. 
No. 18, AE. 

Reverse. The goddess of Concord seated to the left; her left foot 
raised upon a low block; draped to the feet; on left arm an overflowing 

cornucopiae; right hand holds out the patera. Legend: Concordia Au- 
gusta— "Concord, the Empress." S. C, for Senatus Consulto— "By 
Decree of the Senate." 

No. 19, AE. A Hreek Imperial. 

This may be studied in connection with the three following, all 
struck in Egypt. The Obverse of each has the head of Titus, with the 
Inscription, "Of Titus, Emperor, Caesar, Augustus, Vespasian." 

Reverse. A Harpy. These fabulous birds were rapacious monsters, 
half birds, half women, derived from a Greek word, " the Snatchers," 
" the Swift Robbers," etc. In Homer they seem only to be personified 
storm-winds. Their names were Aello and Oeypete, sisters of Isis. They 
had heads of maidens; long claws on their hands; their faces pale with 
hunger. Virgil describes them powerfully in the Aeneid. The Greek 
letters Ar are for "Of the third year" of Titus, viz. a.d. 81. 

No. 20, AE. 

Reverse. The goddess Isis, the most famed of Egyptian deities. 
Before her head is the Lotus, mystic emblem of the Nile. The Greek 
letters are read: AYKABANT02 4— "Of the fourth year." 

The Egyptians exhibited peculiar respect to Titus. It was in their 
city of Alexandria that his father was first nominated Emperor of Rome 
by the legions, July 1, a.d. 69. 

No. 21, AE. 

Reverse. The head of Serapis, prime god of Egypt, whose worship 
extended throughout the Roman Empire. Abounding hair; bushy beard; 
venerable features. On his head a modius (grain measure), an Egyptian 
emblem of fertility. The Greek letters are read "Of the year 6," but 
as the reign of Titus extended only with the third year, the figures must 
refer to some other epoch. 

No. 22, AE. 

Reverse. As No. 21, Serapis standing to the left; right hand rests 
upon a long, unarmed spear; undraped to the hips; upon his head the 
modius; right haud points to the Clava (club) of Hercules below. 

This club is also attached to the legend of Perseus. He was first 
attacked by Periphetes, in Epidauria, whose weapon was a club, and 
who, on that account, was called Corynetes, or the club-bearer. He 
engaged with him and slew him. Delighted with this club, he took it 
for his weapon, and used it as Hercules did the lion's skin. 

No. 23, AE. 

This may be studied in connection with Nos. 24 and 26. The Obverse 
of each is No. 24. 

Reverse. A Triumph scene. Titus, with his father, Vespasian, en- 
joyed a memorable triumph after the destruction of Jerusalem. Titus 
driving a quadriga (four-horse chariot) to the right. No Legend. S. C. 
is for Senatus Consulto — "By Decree of the Senate." 

No. 24, AE. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Titus to the right; beardless; bust un- 
draped. Inscription (abbreviated): T CAES IMP PONT TR P COS II 
CENS; (supplied) — Titus Caesar; Imperator; Pontifcx; Tribunitia Potes- 
tate; Consul 2; Censor— "Titus Caesar: Emperor; Priest; Exercising 
Tribunitian Power; Consul the second time; Censor. 

As early as B.C. 441, two magistrates, entitled Censores, were appointed 
for taking an account ot the number of the people and the value of their 
fortunes (censm agendo). At first the office was conferred for five years, 
afterward for only one year and a half; but no one could be elected a 
second lime. They had all the ensigns of Consuls except the lictors. 
The last Censors were Paulus and Plancus, under Augustus, when the 
office was abolished, and the chief duties of it were exercised by the 
' Emperors themselves or by other magistrates. 

One would think, seeing how willing the Emperors were to bear 
the honors of the Tribunate, the Consulate, etc., that this office of 
Censor would have had greater attractions. Not only were the duties 
weighty, such as taking the national census, reforming the Senate, 
inspecting the morals and estimating the fortunes of the people; but the 
honors and privileges of the post, like those of the other offices men- 
*tioned, were very great. Iu the coins we find the office indicated by the 
terms CENS, CENS II, CENS PERP, etc. 

No. 25, AE. 

Reverse. Victory gradient, to the right, with her accustomed attri- 
butes, viz., palm-brauch on left arm; wreath extended in her right. 
Beneath her is a vessel's prow, denoting that the victory was a naval 
one. Legend: VICTORIA NAVALIS —"Naval Victory." This victory 
upon the waters of the Sea of Galilee is fully described by Josephtis. 

No. 26, AE. 

Reverse. The same group as upon the Reverse of No. 1, with slight 

No. 27, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Obverse. The head of Julia, daughter of the Emperor Titus, to the 
right; hair elaborately worked; bust modestly draped. Inscription: 
IOYAIA 5EBA5TH— "Julia Augusta." 

Reverse. A Tripod (tripus), or three-footed seat. 



GQin,-- Sheets. 

AmeviQau Mm@QiatiQm o>i ^umisBsatMtsii 


[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome from 
B.C. 47 to a.d. 96, Domitian, a.d. 81-96, was the last. The eleven who 
preceded him under this title were: Julius Caesar, b.c. 47-44; Augustus, 
b.c. 31-a.d. 14, Tiberius, 14-37; Caligula, 37-11; Claudius, 41-54; Neho, 
54-68; Galba, 6S-69; Otho, 69; Vitellius, 09; Vespasian, 69-79; and 
Titus, 79-81.] 

Titus Flavius Domitianus Augustus, twelfth and last of the Caesars, 
Emperor of Rome a.d. 81 to 96, was born at Rome, October 24, a.d. 52. The 
reigning Emperor was Claudius. His father was Vespasian, tenth of the 
Roman Emperors; his brother Titus was his immediate predecessor upon 
the throne; his mother, Flavia Domitilla, was a lady of good family and 
worthy behavior. Like his brother Titus, Domitian had a taste for poetry, 
and spent much time in composing, and reading his productions to others. 
Pliny and Quintilian nattered him by placing his verses in the front rank 
of masters; and he proved his fondness for literature by establishing the 
five-years' contest in honor of Jupiter Capitolinus, one feature of which 
was a Musical Contest. He also instituted a pension for distinguished 
rhetoricians. Yet he was addicted to excessive licentiousness, seen in the 
seduction of Roman matrons, and the crowd of mistresses among whom 
he lived. 

After the fall of Vitellius, December 18, a.d. 69, Domitian was pro- 
claimed Caesar, and obtained the city-praetorship, with consular power. 
As his father did not arrive at Rome until January, a.d. 70, Domitian 
undertook, with Mucianus, to administer the government of Italy until 
his arrival, but so badly, that he pretended to his father that he had been 
insane. Prom that time forward Vespasian shut him out as much as pos- 
sible from public affairs. 

At the great Judaean triumph, Domitian followed his father and brother, 
riding a white war-steed, as Augustus had followed Julius upon a similar 
occasion a century before. Upon his father's death, June 24, 79, Domi- 
tian publicly declared that he had been deprived by Titus of his share in 
the government by a forgery in his father's will, for that it had been the 
wish of the latter that the two brothers should reign jointly. 

The death of Titus, September, a.d. 81, after a brief reign of two years, 
excited popular suspicion againBt Domitian, and some writers plainly 
assert that he murdered his brother. Nevertheless he was proclaimed 
Emperor by the soldiers, and wore the purple for fifteen years with little 

In the first period of his reign he manifested an equal mixture of vices 
and virtues. He kept a strict superintendence over the governors of the 
provinces; enacted various useful laws; endeavored to correct the frivolous 
and licentious conduct of the higher classes, — corrupted, we may conjec- 
ture, by his own pernicious example,— and showed great liberality and 
moderation upon many occasions. 

But this was only for a ruse. Later, he became one of the most cruel 
tyrants that had disgraced the throne. " His very virtues," says a his- 
torian, "were turned to vices," and his name is indissolubly linked with 
those of Tiberius, Caligula and Nero. 

A.D. 84 he undertook an expedition against the Chatti, and drove back 
those barbarians to their own country. Returning to Rome, he celebrated 
a triumph, and assumed the name of Germanicus, so popular with his 
predecessors. Wars were also carried on during his reign with the Dacians, 
Macromanni and Quadi. Various outbreaks and insurrections occurred, 
frequent in all the history of the Roman Empire. 

From a.d. 90 the mind of Domitian seems to have been even more 
beclouded. He baniBhed all philosophers from Rome, and the most dis- 
tinguished men of the time, especially among the Senators, bled for their 
excellence. He tried to win the military and populace by donations of 
money, and the exhibition of the circus and amphitheatre, in which he 
himself took great delight. 

In the year 88 he celebrated the Secular Games, corresponding to the 
modern idea of Centennials. We touched upon these under heads of 
Augustus and Claudius. In our coins of Domitian several will be found 
struck in commemoration of these. 

Records concerning the Saeculares are scanty. Historians, even, differ 
as to the frequency with which such important celebrations were kept up. 
The following data are perhaps as reliable as any: 

The first Saeculares were held B.C. 508 or 505. 

The second Saeculares were held B.C. 448 or 345. 

The third Saeculares were held B.c, 235. 

The fourth Saeculares were held b.o. 148 or 145. 

The fifth Saeculares were held b.c 17, by Augustus. 

The sixth Saeculares were held a.d. 47, by Claudius. 

The seventh Saeculares were held a.d. 86, by Domitian. 

The eighth Saeculares were held a.d. 204, by Septimus Severus. 

The ninth (and last) Saeculares were held a.d. 248, by Philip. 

" After a war of forty years," sayB Gibbon, "undertaken by the most 
stupid (Claudius), maintained by the most dissolute (Nero), and termi- 
nated by the most timid of all the Emperors (Domitian), the far greater 
part of Britain submitted to the Roman yoke." 

The death of Domitian was a fit ending to such a life. A conspiracy 
was formed against him in his own palace, his wife, Domitia, being con- 
cerned in it, and he was assassinated in his bedchamber, September 18, 
96, with seven wounds, being forty-four years of age. 

We shall vainly look upon the coins of this imperial villain for evi- 
dences of his depravity. The head of the church, of the army, perpetual 
censor, having the tribnnitian and proconsulate powers for life, — there 
was no dariug in a mint-master to tell the world that the prince was a 
monster of villainy. On the contrary, we read upon the coins only the 
better hopes and aspirations of the nation. 

The attributions of the Ephesian Diana upon the monuments of Domi- 
tian cannot fail to remind us that it was under the edict of Domitian that 
the old bishop of Ephesus, and the other six Christian churches of Asia 
Minor (St. John the Evangelist), was' banished to the island of Patmos. 
Who shall say that the weird shapes of this image of Diana and other 
deities, of which that region was full, do not enter (but under a higher 
and nobler meaning) into the strange Imagery of the Apocalypse! 

Writers claim that Diana was an original Italian divinity, identified by 
the Romans with the Greek Artemis, by which name she is styled in 
Acts xix, 35 (Greek version). As early as b.c. 550, Servius Tullius dedicated 
a temple 1o her on the Aventine. She was the protectress of slaves; and 
the day of that temple's dedication was afterward celebrated annually by 
slaves, and styled dies servorum (" slaves' day"). She was said to dwell 
in groves, and in the neighborhood of wells. She was goddess of the 
Moon, as her twin brother, Apollo, was of the Sun; so that sudden deaths 
from sun-stroke and dementia from moonstroke were ascribed to them. 

At Ephesus, she was identified with the goddess of nature, whose sym- 
bolical figure, as in many of the coins we are studying, was hung about 
with the heads of animals, and presented a multitude of breasts, denoting 
the fecundity of nature. Upon coins struck at Rome she is usually repre- 
sented as a healthy, strong, active maiden, handsome, but with no gentle- 
ness of expression. She wears the Cretan hunting-shoes Uudmmides), 
and has her garment tucked up for speed. On her back she bears a quiver, 
and in her hand a bow or hunting-spear. Her Greek name, Artemis, 
refers to her pepetual virginity. Her chief joy was to speed, like a Dorian 
maid, over the hills, followed by a train of nymphs, in pursuit of flying 

It is pleasant to imagine a father, who has sold his package of fodder 
in the nearest town, and received payment in a new coinage, with the 
attributions of Diana on the obverse, upon his arrival home calling his 
children together, and giving them for their evening lesson the whole story 
of Diana with that earnestness which faith in the goddess and in her 
legends, and in her divine power, could impart! 

The music of the Romans, as illustrated upon the coins of Domitian, 
was made both by stringed and wind instrum 3nts. In the army they used 
only the latter. The tuba was a straight brass instrument, like our trum- 
pet; the cornu was bent almost round; the buccina, much like the horn; 
the lituus (clarion), bent a little at the end, like the lituus of the augur. Of 
these, the tuba was used for signals to the infantry; the lituus for the cav- 
alry. In civil celebrations, domestic festivals and the like, the double 
pipe, as in the coins just cited, and the cithara, or lyre, were employed; 
but we know very little of the quality of music made by such a combina- 
tion. Judging it by the music of the Orientals at the present day, which 
is probably changed but little from the earliest, it consisted of a few notes 
played in octaves upon different instruments, and with little regard to 
time or any sound rule of musical science. 

The image of Minerva, finely drawn upon the denarius of Domitian, 
demands a few remarks concerning that warlike goddess, so great a favorite 
with Romans. To pay the legionaries their "penny a day" in coins pre- 
senting their own chosen deity was as good as doubling the stipend. 



Homer's theory of Minerva (or Pallas-Athene) is finely expressed upon 
the coin. She was one of the great Roman divinities— the thinking, cal- 
culating and inventive power personified. Those who desired to excel in 
any art or craft implored her aid. She guided men through the dangers 
of war, where victory is gained by cunning, prudence, courage and perse- 
verance. Hence she is represented with shield, helmet, coat of mail, etc., 
and the booty made in war was frequently dedicated to her. Her annual 
festival lasted five days— from the 19th to the 23d of March; for the num- 
ber live was sacred to Minerva. Another festival was celebrated in June. 
She had several temples at Rome, one on the Capitoline, one on the 
Aventine Hills. As she was a perpetual virgin, her sacrifices consisted 
of calves that had not borne the yoke or felt the goad. Her festivals were 
styled Minervalia, She was the inventor of the pipe, made first from the 
bone of a stag. Her favorite plant was the olive, of which she was the 
author; the animals consecrated to her were the owl and the serpent. 

Minerva is represented with a serious, thoughtful countenance; her 
eyes large and steady, like the owl's; her hair in ringlets, loose, flying over 
her shoulders. She wears a long tunic or mautle, and bears the aegis on 
her breast or on her arm, with the head of the Corgon in the center, yhe 
waB also the goddess of memory. Her attributions upon the early coins 
of Attica were the owl, the moon and the olive-branch. Her nicknames in 
Greek were three: by the farmers she was styled ox-yoker; by the citizens, 
worker; by the soldiers, front-fighter. 

At the close of this sketch it will not be amiss to indulge our im- 
agination and call up a scene, say of the time of Nerva (a.d. 96-98), when 
our first twelve Caesars were dead, and the most searching criticism upon 
their lives was safe. The scene is that of a pedagogus (schoolmaster) sur- 
rounded by his pupils. He is teaching history, the only history worth 
teaching, the history of the Roman nation. He is teaching it by objects, 
viz., coins. From a handful of these elear-tongued monuments he expati- 
ates upon the generalship of Julius Caesar; the statesmanship of Augus- 
tus; the bigotry of Tiberius; the profligacy of Caligula; the cruelty of 
Claudius; the ephemeral but evil reigns of Galba, Otho and Vilellius; the 
excellent rule of Vespasian ; the short but glorious career of Titus; the 
unmatched and crowning infamy of Domitian. What subjects! What 
aids in teaching! Nothing germane to the history, the religion, the pro- 
gress of the Roman nation was wanting to the old pedagogue, skilled to 
interpret the coins! 



Of eighteen coins, silver and bronze, of the Emperor Domitian, from 

the illustrations on the fourth page. 

[The student will observe in these Readings : First, that the size of a 
Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture. Second, that the 
metal is distinguished by an abbreviation, — AV (aurum) standing for gold, 
AR (argentum) for silver, AE (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, words in- 
discriminately used in Numismatics. Third, that there are few punctua- 
tion points on Coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to facili- 
tate Readings. Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms of Greek 
letters here, but substitute modern type; and, Fifth, that these Readings 
are prepared as well for the use of Learners as experts.] 

No. 1, AE. A medallion. The two faces are separated to give a better 
appearance to the page. 

Obverse. The laureate head of Domitian to the right. Features strong 
and commanding; artistic execution the very best; beardless; shoulders 
undraped. Inscription (abbreviated): IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM 
COS XV CENS PERP PP; (resolved) — Imperator Caesar Domitianus; 
Augustus; Germanicus; Consul 15; Censor Perpetuus; Pater Patriae,— 
"The Emperor Caesar Domitian ; Augustus; Germanicus; Consul the fif- 
teenth time; Perpetual Censor; Father of the Country." 

Reverse. Jove, King of Heaven, seated, to the left, naked to the hips; 
his feet upon a swppedaneiis (low block or support for the feet; foot-rest); 
his left hand is supported by the hasta pura; his right holds up a Victo- 
rlola, winged and with a crown. Legend: IOVI VICTORI— " To Jupiter 
the Victor." 

The appearance of Jove upon the Roman money had nothing to shock 
the reverence of a people whose religious ideas were so strangely made up. 
Indeed when we see the Italian painters at the present day introducing 
representations of God the Father, and the divine Nazarene in their works, 
the offense on the part of heathen-artists appears venial. 

No. 2, AR. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Domitian to the right. Features as in 
No. 1; beardless; bust not draped. Inscription (supplied): "Domitian 
Augustus Germanicus." 

Reverse. A hexastyle (six-columned) Temple; order of architecture, 
Corinthian; approached by six steps; full front. There are three standing 

figures in front representing Vespasian, Titus and Domitian. Legend: 
IMP CAESAR, for "The Emperor Caesar." 

This is the Temple which Titus erected to Vespasian, after his father's 
apotheosis, and in which the remains of the good old prince were depos- 
ited. Titus himself was deified by command of his brother, Domitian, and 
he has stationed himself as a god with the others. For he writes in one 
epistle: " Our lord and god commands it so to be done! " 

No. 3, AR. 

Obverse. The laureate head of Domitian to the right. Hair thick and 
curly; beardless; bust unclothed. Inscription (supplied): Imperator Cae- 
sar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus Pontifex Maximus Tribunitia 
Potestate 14—" The High Priest; exereising the Tribunitian Power the 
fourteenth time." 

Reverse. The figure of Minerva Jaculatrix standing, to the right, upon 
the prow of a vessel. On her left arm a circular shield; her right hand 
raised as if to cast a dart; at. her feet an urn. Legend (abbreviated): IMP 
XXII COS XVII CENS P P P; (supplied)— Imperator 22; Consul 17; 
Censor Perpetuus; Pater Patriae— "Imperator for the twenty-second 
time; Consul for the seventeenth time; Perpetual CenBOr; Father of the 

No. 4, AE. This may be studied in connection with the four following. 
The five were struck to commemorate the Lvdos Saeculares, or secular 
games,— one of the Centennials of Rome of which mention is made 
under Augustus and Claudius. The Obverse of each contains the head 
and titles of Domitian. The legend upon the Reverse is the same 
throughout the five. 

Reverse. The Emperor, togated, stands on the right of the field look- 
ing to the left. Before him is an ornamented square altar, on which fire is 
burning. He holds in his right hand the patera, from which he is pouring 
an oblation upon the altar. Two musicians, one playing on the double 
pipes, a third upon the lyre, are making loud acclaim. A goat, prepared 
for sacrifice, is on the right of the scene, having an attendant upon one 
side and a dog upon the other. There is no Victimarius, or sacrificer. 
Legend, see No. 5. 

No. 5, AE. 

Reverse. The Emperor, stolated, on the right of the field, looking to 
the left; before him a round altar, on which fire is burning. He holds in 
his right hand the patera, from which he is pouring an oblation upon the 
altar; two musicians play before him on harp and double pipe; an ox to 
the left, his head held down by an attendant, and the Victimarius (sacred 
butcher) is aiming the covp-de-grace with a heavy mallet upon the fore- 
head. Legend (abbreviated): COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC — Consnl 14: 
Ludos Saeculares Fecit — "Being Consul for the fourteenth time he accom- 
plished the Secular Games"; S. C— Senatus Consulto— " By Decree of 
the Senate." This fourteenth Consulate, wc know, began New Year's 
day, a.d. 88, and this sets the year in which the Centennial was observed. 

No. 6, AE. 

Reverse. The grouping as the last, save that the altar is larger and 
more ornamented. There are three musicians, two playing the double 
pipe, the third, seated in the foreground, the lyre. Legend as in No. 5. 
There is neither victim norVictimariuB. 

No. 7, AE. 

Reverse. Much the same as the last. The altar is smaller and not 
ornate; there are two musicians with the double pipe and lyre; no victim 
or Victimarius. Legend, the same as No. 6. 

No. 8, AE. 

Reverse. Much the same as the last. The altar is large and is orna- 
mented. Legend, the same as No. 7. 

In the background of each of these Secular Coins (Nummi Saeculares) 
is a Temple. Each presents a shade of difference, but that in No. 6 offers 
a more elaborate front than the others. 

The fact that the poet Horace wrote the Secular Hymn {Carmen Saeoi- 
lare), has given more interest to the celebration of b.c. 17, under Augus- 
tus, than to any prior or subsequent proceeding of the sort. The city then 
had stood 737 years from its foundation. Heralds (feciales) were sent out 
to invite all people to a festival "which they never had seen and never 
could sec again." Torches, barley, beans and fumigating stuffs were 
freely distributed to all the people. The jurist Ateius Capito was made 
" chairman of the Committee of Arrangements." 

Three summer days and nights were given to worship and festivity, 
when the hymn of Horace wound up the great occasion. 

No. 9, AE. . •. 

Obverse is common to Nos. 9 and 13. ' - 

Reverse. An elegant collection of Roman arms fastened to the pole 
of a vexillnm, surmounted by a laurel wreath. S. C..— Senatugi Consul to 
— " By Decree of the Senate." 

No. 10, AE. " ". : '.' 

Reverse. A collection of standards. In the' center the legionary eagle, 
with extended wings, standing oh fulmina (thunderbolts); on each side of 
the eagle a vexillum; below, the letters XXII refer to the 22d Legion, 



whose soldiers had formed the Colony Patrons, in Achaia, under Augus- 
tus, a century before. Legend (abbreviated): COL A A PATE; (sup- 
plied)— Colonia Augusta Aroc (Vcl Aroa) Patrcnsis— "The Colony Au- 
gusta Aroa at Patrons, Achaia. 1 ' 

"The22d Legion," says the historian, "first enlisted by Augustus lu 
Egypt, was led to Patras, or Patrons, in Achaia, and colonized there." 

No. 11, AE. 

This may be studied in connection with No. 12, having the same 

Reverse. Two youths to the left standing upon a suggestura, on 
which is seen the words DIWS AVG(ustus)— "The deified Augustus." 
Each has his right hand raised and legs crossed; left hand rests on hip. 
Legend: "Colonia Augusta Philippi." Domitian founded numerous 
colonies during his fifteen years' reign, to which he showed great favors, 
acknowledged by their recipients in. compliments like this. The two 
youths represent Titus and Domitian. 

No. 12, AE. 

For Obverse, see No. 11. 

Reverse. A Colony-symbol, viz., a Colonist driving a yoke of oxen 
to the right; they arc not yoked or fastened to the plow. Legend 
(abraded): COL IVL — Colonia Julia— "The Julian Colony." Sec No. 8 
in the coin-sheet of Claudius for cut and description of this coin. 

No. 13, AE. 

For Obverse, see No. 0. 

Reverse. Domitian triumphing in a quadriga (four-horse chariot) to 
the right. In his right hand, which also holds the reins, he bears a legion- 
ary eagle; in his left, a helmet upon a spear. The action of the horses is 
superb, and gives evidence of the highest style of art. S. C— Senatus 
Consulto— " By Decree of the Senate." 

We have described the occasion for which the Emperor claimed this 
public triumph. 

No. 14, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Reverse. A Canopus to the right; upon his head a lotus-flower. The 
Lotus, like wheat-cars, is the type of abundance, and found as well upon 
coins of Sicily and Mauretania as Egypt. Its head is similar to that of 
the paper-plant, from which the flower springs. In the mysteries of the 
Egyptians-it frequently appears and is seen upon a great number of their 

Canopus was a god of Egypt, named from CANE, referring to the 
measuring-rod of the Nile. In another sheet we have given the ancient 
story of the origin of this creature, whose body in a basket, and hideous 
face, excite the wonder of the beholder. It involved the inquiry, Which 
was more powerful, fire or water? — the corresponding objects of worship 
of Chaldea and Egypt. 

No. 15. AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Obverse. The heads of Domitian and his wife, Domitia, facing each 
other. His head is laureate; hers is wrought by the art of the hairdresser, 
in marvelous faBhion. Her bust is neatly draped; his face is beardless and 
bust undraped. Inscription (abbreviated): AOMITIANOS K.U2 2EB 
TEPMANIK02 AOMITIA 2EBA2TH — " Domitian Caesar Augustus Ger- 
manicus; Domitia Augusta." 

Reverse. The figure of Hercules to the left. In his right hand an 
urceola; in his left, his club and lion-skin. Legend (abraded): Em 
AIM02TPATOY 2TPATHrOY - - - 2MYP— "By Dimostrates, Praefect of 
the people of Smyrna." 

This is the lady whose hand aesisted in closing the career of her 
wretched husband. The coin was struck at Smyrna, where Hercules was 
a favored object of worship. 

The exploits of Hercules form a charming series of types upon Greek 
and Roman Coins. This son of Jupiter and Alcmena being promised, as 
the reward of a faithful life, a place among the gods, resolved to bear with 
fortitude whatever the gods and men should impose upon him. His ex- 
ploits arc known as "the twelve labors of Hercules." The first, the de- 
struction of the Nemean lion with his massive and knotty club, is that 
which is most frequently illustrated upon coins; where either the club 
alone is given, or, as in the present specimen, the figure itself. He carried 
the dead lion to Mycenae, and ever after clothed himself in the skin. 

His second labor was to destroy the Lernaean hydra, a frequent coin 
illustration; the third, to bring alive a stag incredible for its swiftness 
and golden horns; the fourth, to kill the Erymanthian boar; the fifth, to 
cleanse the Augean stables. In many of his exploits the club and lion's 
skin play a part. 

The frequency with which Hercules enters into the mythology of the 
ancients is seen in this passage from the poet Nonnius: "He is the same 
god whom different nations adore under a multitude of different names — 
Belus, on the banks of the Euphrates ; Amman, in Libya ; Apis, at Memphis ; 
Saturn, in Arabia; Jupiter,in Assyria; Serapis, in Egypt; Helios, among 
the Babylonians; Apollo^ at Delphi; Esculapius, throughout Greece." 
The Orphic Hymn calls' Hercules "the god who produced time, whose 
forms vary, the father of all things, and destroyer of all." His head is 

represented as old, heavily bearded and covered with the lion's scalp. His 
limbs ore figured as extraordinarily large; his constitution is robust; his 
body full of vigor. 

Some of the numismatic titles applied to this demi-god arc: To the 
Roman Hercules (Herculi Romano); To the health-giving god Hercules 
(Herculi Deo Salutari); To Hercules of Augustus; To Hercules, Pounder 
of Rome (ncrc. Horn. Cond.); To Hercules the Victor; To Hercules the 
Conservator of Augustus, etc. 

No. 16, AE. A Greek Imperial. 

Obverse. The head of Domitia to the right. Bust modestly draped; 
hair wonderfully wrought. Inscription: "Domitia Augusta." 

Reverse. Diana of the Ephesiaus. Her body marked with numer- 
ous breasts, which gave her the appellation of Polymamma (the many 
breasted). Legend: OMONOIA AN0YKAI2ENIIAITOY 2MYP E*E — 
"The Covenant between the Ephesians and Smyrneans." 

This coin was struck under joint authority of these two cities, neigh- 
bors within twenty-five miles, having much in common, and united for a 
long time by the strongest covenant (Omonoia). 

No. 17, AE. A medallion. The two faces are separated on the sheet to 
give symmetry to the page. 

Obverse. The laureate head of Domitian to the right. Beardless; bust 
undraped. In the point of the bust is a countermark, a theatrical mask. 
Inscription: Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus Consul 
11; Censor Perpetuus; Pater Patriae — "The Emperor Caesar Domitian 
Augustus Germanicus; Consul for the eleventh time; Perpetual Censor." 
This eleventh Consulship sets the date of the coin as a.d. 85. 

Reverse. A trophy of arms captured in the successful campaigns 
which gave Domitian his favorite appellation of Germanicus. Upon a 
strong post or the trunk of a tree the shields, etc., are fastened; on the 
right a man is leaning upon a shield; on the left a woman with face cov- 
ered sits on a pile of shields. Legend: GERMANIA CAPTA— " Germany 
subdued." S. C. in the exergue is for Senatus ConBulto— "By Decree of 
the Senate." 

No. 18, AE. This coin may be studied in connection with Nos. 4, 5, 6, 
7 and 8. 

Obverse. Laureate head of Domitian to the right. Inscription (sup" 
plied): Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus Pontifex Max- 
imus Tribunitia Potestatc 8; Censor Perpetuus; Pater Patriae— "The 
Emperor Caesar," etc. 

Reverse. The robed figure of the Emperor to the right, seated on a 
low tribunal (suggestum) supported by four balls. From two large vases in 
front he is dispensing donations to two men; upon the platform below 
him are the words FRVG(es) AVG(usti)— "The food-offerings of the 
Augustus." In the rear is a tetrastyle temple. Legend (Anglice): "Con- 
sul the fourteenth time; the Secular Games of the People." S. C. in the 
exergue — Senatus Consulto — " By Decree of the Senate." This fourteenth 
consulate settles the date at a.d. 88. 

Besides the seventeen coins figured upon the fourth page of this sheet 
we bring to our illustrations the testimony of a number of silver and 
bronze specimens. The French writers claim that Domitian imitated the 
example of his father and brother in striking a conquest-coin of Judaea, 
whose type is a Jewess seated on the ground, a soldier standing, and a 
Roman trophy near by. The legend is IVDAEA CAPTA SC, which we 
have described in the coins of Vespasian. (See Madden's Jewish Coinage, 
p. 197.) 

Among the existing denarii of Domitian, which are very numerous,— 
for this class of coins was under the Emperor's direct control, and he 
could multiply them to any extent he chose,— we instance the following: 

1. Type, Salius (Sains), the personification of health, prosperity and 
the public welfare among the Romans. A temple to Salus stood on one 
of the points of the Mount Quirinalis in Rome. In the coin she is 
depictured gradient to the left; her head helmeted; in her right hand the 
lictor's wand (bacilhtm) with its thick kDOts; in her left, a shield, in 
which is the head of Pallas, worshiped by Domitian above the other 
deities. Legend: "Consul the fourteenth time; he celebrated the Secu- 
lar Games." 

2. Type, an infant sitting on a globe, surrounded with seven stars. 
Legend: Divus Caesar, Imperatoris Domitiani Filius — "The deified 
Caesar, son of the Emperor Domitian." This affecting monument of 
parental grief was struck in honor of the son of the Emperor, who died 
at the age of eight or nine years. His name is not given upon coins. He 
was the first child deified (Divvs Caesar). Great importance was attached 
at the time both to his birth and death. The seven stars are those of 
Arctos or Ursa Major, which were considered an emblem of eternity." 

3. Type, the head of Domitia, the Empress. When she gave him a son 
he honored her with the title of Augusta (Empress). 

4. Type, a shield under which are two wheat-stalks crossed. This is 
the votive shield which Domitian vowed on account of the war carried on 
by Titus against the Jews, and when the war was ended hung up in the 
temple of Jupiter Capitoline. 


The American Association of Numismatists. 

This Society was originally a branch organization of the American Holy Land Exploration, 
established in 1869, and had the same regnlations, officers, etc., as the parent stem. In 1877 the 
Society was placed upon an independent footing, and a formal application is now (May, 1877,) ready 
to be made to the Legislature of Kentucky for an act of incorporation under the name in the caption. 

In the meantime, all persons interested in numismatic pursuits are welcome, without fee, to member- 
ship with the society and to the issues, gratuitously, of. our organ, the Numismatic Pilot, published 
semi-monthly. The specific aims of the American Association of Numismatists are: 

1. To collect in foreign countries, import, describe and distribute ancient coins, illustrating the 
history, religions and manners of ancient peoples. 

2. To publish numismatic works, and to aid in a larger dissemination of such literature among 
our private and public libraries. 

3. To supply colleges, public institutions and individuals with full collections of historical coins, 
arranged and described under the full light of the science. 

4. To reproduce rare coins and medals of historic interest, of which the originals are unique and 
cannot be obtained in this country. 


ROLLA FLOYD, Esq., Joppa, Syria, President. 

Hon. E. T. ROGERS, H. B. M. Consul, Cairo, Egypt (now Financial Agent of the Khedive, at 

London), Vice-President. 

H. J. GOODRICH, Esq., Chicago, Ills., Treasurer. 

ROBERT MORRIS, LL.D., La Grange, Ky., Secretary, ^s 


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